Review ArticleOstracism in Pediatric Populations Review of Theory and ResearchSaylor, Conway F. PhD*; Williams, Kipling D. PhD†; Nida, Steve A. PhD*; McKenna, Margaret E. MD‡; Twomey, Kaitlin E. BS*; Macias, Michelle M. MD‡Author Information *Department of Psychology, The Citadel, Charleston, SC; †Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; and ‡Division of Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Address for reprints: Conway F. Saylor, PhD, 171 Moultrie Station, Charleston, SC 29409; e-mail: [email protected]. Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Received February , 2012 Accepted January , 2013 Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics: May 2013 - Volume 34 - Issue 4 - p 279-287 doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182874127 Buy Metrics Abstract Ostracism, ignoring and excluding a target individual, has recently emerged as one of the more common and damaging forms of social exchange. This article reviews the theoretical and empirical foundations of ostracism and its impact on the targeted individual, especially threats to the fundamental psychological needs of belonging, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and sense of control. Ostracism in children and adolescents is under-researched compared to bullying in general, in both the general youth population and in populations of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). Basic and applied studies on ostracism and its impact are reviewed with special emphasis on recent findings about ostracism in CYSHCN. Evidence is presented that ostracism may pose an even greater threat to children’s adjustment and need-threat levels than bullying. Resources for clinician and researcher engagement in this emerging area are provided. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.