Fifty long-term (3-9 year) survivors of pediatric liver transplantation were assessed using IQ, achievement, and school history measures. Forty-seven of these children had been evaluated before transplantation on intellectual measures, with mean scores for the group found to be in the low average range. At follow-up evaluation, the scores remained in the low average range on all intellectual measures; performance on academic tests was also within the low average range. Thirteen children (26%) were classified as having learning problems based on discrepancies between intellectual and academic function, but only five of them (38%) had received special education services. Nine of the children (18%) had IQ scores less than 70. Academic outcome did not relate to diagnosis, time between diagnosis and transplantation, age at time of transplantation, or average levels of cyclosporin A. Careful assessment and appropriate special education services are indicated to optimize the educational outcome of children who survive liver transplantation.
Address for reprints: Betsy D. Kennard. Psy.D., Division of Psychology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75235-9044; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; fax: 214-648-5297.
© 1999 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.