This study examined the effects of shoe heel height on the roll-over shapes of seven prosthetic ankle foot systems. The systems could not adapt to small changes in shoe heel height without experiencing changes in the orientation, measured as forward shifting, of their roll-over shapes. Alignment changes to properly orient the roll-over shape when wearing shoes of different heel heights requires a manual adjustment. Future designs could attempt to provide systems that can adapt automatically to changes in shoe heel height, perhaps using an invariant roll-over shape as a design constraint.
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