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CME Quiz


Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics: April 2017 - Volume 29 - Issue 2 - p 63-64
doi: 10.1097/JPO.0000000000000129
  • Free


  1. Read the article on pages 54–62.
  2. Complete the examination.
  3. Submit your completed examination to the Academy per the directions on the next page.


The following questions require short answers only; you do not have to use complete sentences. All questions refer to the article, Multi-Position Training Improves Robustness of Pattern-Recognition and Reduces Limb-Position Effect in Prosthetic Control, Robert J. Beaulieu, MD, et al.


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JPO Quiz – Multi-Position Training Improves Robustness of Pattern-Recognition and Reduces Limb-Position Effect in Prosthetic Control, Robert J. Beaulieu, MD, et al.

  1. The purpose of this study was to –
    1. Increase the amount of training individuals with upper-limb amputations receive
    2. Reduce the number of covariates that must be monitored in myoelectric prosthetic limbs
    3. Identify more robust models for decoding electromyography (EMG) signals to improve prosthetic performance
    4. Compare the effectiveness of grasping objects for able-bodied individuals and individuals with upper-limb amputation
  2. How many total participants were included in this study?
    1. 2
    2. 12
    3. 25
    4. 62
  3. Which two covariates studied produced significant impacts on the EMG signals (and led to improved performance when incorporated into classifier algorithms)?
    1. Elbow angle and hand height
    2. Elbow angle and shoulder height
    3. Forearm-ground angle and shoulder angle
    4. Forearm-ground angle and repetition number
  4. The primary obstacle to incorporating elbow angle and hand height into existing classifier algorithms is –
    1. The cost required to reprogram the prosthesis
    2. The data cannot be integrated into the algorithms easily.
    3. Most existing prostheses do not have the hardware to collect positional information.
    4. Most prosthetists do not have the skill to train the prostheses with the new algorithms.
  5. Which covariate studied yielded the distribution of mean absolute values (MAVs) with the largest variance while maintaining a distribution mean of zero, causing the authors to implicate this covariate as playing a significant role in the “limb-position effect”?
    1. The elbow angle
    2. The hand height
    3. The forearm angle
    4. The repetition number
  6. Based on the research in this study, current myoelectric prosthesis users can probably reduce the “limb-position effect” by –
    1. Limiting training repetitions in any position to a maximum of 3
    2. Training with existing single-position paradigms, but increasing repetitions significantly
    3. Training in multiple random positions, with at least 5 training repetitions in each position
    4. Training in existing single-position paradigms, but reducing the repetitions to prevent fatigue from influencing the results
  7. The single position (SP) training protocol consisted of –
    1. Five repetitions of a single grasp, in a single neutral position
    2. One repetition of a single grasp, in a single neutral position
    3. One repetition of 5 different grasps, presented in a consistent order as other participants
    4. Nine repetitions of 5 different grasps, presented in random order at a single, neutral position
  8. The authors suggest additional study is warranted based on the results of this research in all the following areas except-
    1. The effectiveness of single-position training protocols
    2. Continued exploration of additional covariates that improve performance
    3. Incorporation of actual task-based testing instead of using classification error as the sole outcome measure
    4. Exploration of the impact of covariates on additional features of EMG signals (other than MAV) that are incorporated into training algorithms.
  9. (True or False)________ Participants demonstrated the lowest classification error rates when data from random training positions were incorporated into the algorithms.
  10. (True or False)_________Each participant required over 1.5 hours to complete the trial.
  11. (True or False)_________When participants initially began the grasp sequence in random positions, they experienced significant decreases in classification accuracy.
  12. (True or False)________ Participants with amputations showed higher accuracy in EMG classifications when wearing their prosthesis than when tested without their prosthesis.

Complete the JPO Self-Assessment Examination on the previous page and score a minimum of 80 percent to earn two MCE credits. Send the completed examination and payment in U.S. currency ($20 for Academy members, $50 nonmembers) to: American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists, 1331 H Street NW, Suite 501, Washington, DC 20005. The examination must be received by the Academy within three years of the publication date for credit to be awarded.

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