TO EARN TWO MCE CREDITS:
- Read the article on pages 54–62.
- Complete the examination.
- Submit your completed examination to the Academy per the directions on the next page.
The following questions require short answers only; you do not have to use complete sentences. All questions refer to the article, Multi-Position Training Improves Robustness of Pattern-Recognition and Reduces Limb-Position Effect in Prosthetic Control, Robert J. Beaulieu, MD, et al.
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JPO Quiz – Multi-Position Training Improves Robustness of Pattern-Recognition and Reduces Limb-Position Effect in Prosthetic Control, Robert J. Beaulieu, MD, et al.
- The purpose of this study was to –
- Increase the amount of training individuals with upper-limb amputations receive
- Reduce the number of covariates that must be monitored in myoelectric prosthetic limbs
- Identify more robust models for decoding electromyography (EMG) signals to improve prosthetic performance
- Compare the effectiveness of grasping objects for able-bodied individuals and individuals with upper-limb amputation
- How many total participants were included in this study?
- Which two covariates studied produced significant impacts on the EMG signals (and led to improved performance when incorporated into classifier algorithms)?
- Elbow angle and hand height
- Elbow angle and shoulder height
- Forearm-ground angle and shoulder angle
- Forearm-ground angle and repetition number
- The primary obstacle to incorporating elbow angle and hand height into existing classifier algorithms is –
- The cost required to reprogram the prosthesis
- The data cannot be integrated into the algorithms easily.
- Most existing prostheses do not have the hardware to collect positional information.
- Most prosthetists do not have the skill to train the prostheses with the new algorithms.
- Which covariate studied yielded the distribution of mean absolute values (MAVs) with the largest variance while maintaining a distribution mean of zero, causing the authors to implicate this covariate as playing a significant role in the “limb-position effect”?
- The elbow angle
- The hand height
- The forearm angle
- The repetition number
- Based on the research in this study, current myoelectric prosthesis users can probably reduce the “limb-position effect” by –
- Limiting training repetitions in any position to a maximum of 3
- Training with existing single-position paradigms, but increasing repetitions significantly
- Training in multiple random positions, with at least 5 training repetitions in each position
- Training in existing single-position paradigms, but reducing the repetitions to prevent fatigue from influencing the results
- The single position (SP) training protocol consisted of –
- Five repetitions of a single grasp, in a single neutral position
- One repetition of a single grasp, in a single neutral position
- One repetition of 5 different grasps, presented in a consistent order as other participants
- Nine repetitions of 5 different grasps, presented in random order at a single, neutral position
- The authors suggest additional study is warranted based on the results of this research in all the following areas except-
- The effectiveness of single-position training protocols
- Continued exploration of additional covariates that improve performance
- Incorporation of actual task-based testing instead of using classification error as the sole outcome measure
- Exploration of the impact of covariates on additional features of EMG signals (other than MAV) that are incorporated into training algorithms.
- (True or False)________ Participants demonstrated the lowest classification error rates when data from random training positions were incorporated into the algorithms.
- (True or False)_________Each participant required over 1.5 hours to complete the trial.
- (True or False)_________When participants initially began the grasp sequence in random positions, they experienced significant decreases in classification accuracy.
- (True or False)________ Participants with amputations showed higher accuracy in EMG classifications when wearing their prosthesis than when tested without their prosthesis.
Complete the JPO Self-Assessment Examination on the previous page and score a minimum of 80 percent to earn two MCE credits. Send the completed examination and payment in U.S. currency ($20 for Academy members, $50 nonmembers) to: American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists, 1331 H Street NW, Suite 501, Washington, DC 20005. The examination must be received by the Academy within three years of the publication date for credit to be awarded.
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