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Self-Assessment Examination


JPO Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics: April 2011 - Volume 23 - Issue 2 - p 58-59
doi: 10.1097/JPO.0b013e318217e221
  • Free


  1. Read the article on pages 52–57.
  2. Complete the examination.
  3. Submit your completed examination to the AAOP per the directions on the next page.


The following questions require short answers only; you do not have to use complete sentences. All questions refer to the article, “Design and Effect of Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) Proposed to Influence Muscle Tone: A Review” by Toshiki Kobayashi, PhD, Aaron K. I. Leung, PhD, Stephen W. Hutchins, PhD.


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Quiz – Design and Effect of Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) Proposed to Influence Muscle Tone: A Review, Toshiki Kobayashi, PhD, Aaron K. I. Leung, PhD, Stephen W. Hutchins, PhD.

1. True or false __________Different AFO designs exist, supporting evidence to demonstrate that these AFOs can actually reduce or inhibit spastic muscle tone.

2. [Select the correct response.] __________is one of the most common neurological impairments which may occur following an upper motor neuron lesion.

A. Stroke

B. Spasticity

C. Cerebral palsy

D. Multiple sclerosis

3. [Select the correct response.] Which of the following is not a type of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) designed and proposed to influence muscle tone.

A. Tone-preventing

B. Dynamic

C. Tone-inhibiting

D. Tone-reducing

4. True or false __________Neurophysiological AFOs were one type of AFO with tone-influencing designs.

5. [Select the correct response.] The addition of __________material that extended from under the toes to a more proximal position underneath the metatarsophalangeal joints was thought to help prevent plantar grasping.

A. Polyurethane

B. Plastic

C. Felt

D. Moleskin

6. [Select the correct response.] The ankle joint was kept at __________degrees with the subtalar joint in a __________position in most AFO designs.

A. 45...negative

B. 90...neutral

C. 60...positive

7. True or false __________Loading on the heel was relieved in the majority of studies, but was augmented in one particular study.

8. True or false __________No conclusive neurophysiological effects were reported when walking with the AFOs.

9. [Select the correct response.] Studies in which comparisons with other types of AFOs were performed __________conclusive evidence that AFOs with tone-influencing designs were superior to others.

A. Showed

B. Did not show

10. [Select the correct response.] The AFOs have __________effect on gait, posture and EMG data in patients with spasticity.

A. No

B. Positive

C. Negligible

D. Negative

11. True or false __________ It was not conclusive whether the AFOs could actually reduce or inhibit muscle tone.

12. True or false __________Based on the strong results of this literature review, it was concluded that the efficacy of the AFOs with tone-influencing designs (i.e., in reducing or inhibiting muscle tone) has been sufficiently proven.

Complete the JPO Self-Assessment Examination on the previous page and score a minimum of 75 percent to earn two PCE credits. Send the completed examination and payment in U.S. currency ($20/AAOP members, $50 nonmembers) to: AAOP, 1331 H Street, NW, Suite 501, Washington, DC 20005. The examination must be received by the AAOP within 3 years of the publication date for credit to be awarded.

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© 2011 American Academy of Orthotists & Prosthetists