TO EARN TWO PCE CREDITS:
- Read the article on pages 52–57.
- Complete the examination.
- Submit your completed examination to the AAOP per the directions on the next page.
The following questions require short answers only; you do not have to use complete sentences. All questions refer to the article, “Design and Effect of Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) Proposed to Influence Muscle Tone: A Review” by Toshiki Kobayashi, PhD, Aaron K. I. Leung, PhD, Stephen W. Hutchins, PhD.
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Quiz – Design and Effect of Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) Proposed to Influence Muscle Tone: A Review, Toshiki Kobayashi, PhD, Aaron K. I. Leung, PhD, Stephen W. Hutchins, PhD.
1. True or false __________Different AFO designs exist, supporting evidence to demonstrate that these AFOs can actually reduce or inhibit spastic muscle tone.
2. [Select the correct response.] __________is one of the most common neurological impairments which may occur following an upper motor neuron lesion.
C. Cerebral palsy
D. Multiple sclerosis
3. [Select the correct response.] Which of the following is not a type of ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) designed and proposed to influence muscle tone.
4. True or false __________Neurophysiological AFOs were one type of AFO with tone-influencing designs.
5. [Select the correct response.] The addition of __________material that extended from under the toes to a more proximal position underneath the metatarsophalangeal joints was thought to help prevent plantar grasping.
6. [Select the correct response.] The ankle joint was kept at __________degrees with the subtalar joint in a __________position in most AFO designs.
7. True or false __________Loading on the heel was relieved in the majority of studies, but was augmented in one particular study.
8. True or false __________No conclusive neurophysiological effects were reported when walking with the AFOs.
9. [Select the correct response.] Studies in which comparisons with other types of AFOs were performed __________conclusive evidence that AFOs with tone-influencing designs were superior to others.
B. Did not show
10. [Select the correct response.] The AFOs have __________effect on gait, posture and EMG data in patients with spasticity.
11. True or false __________ It was not conclusive whether the AFOs could actually reduce or inhibit muscle tone.
12. True or false __________Based on the strong results of this literature review, it was concluded that the efficacy of the AFOs with tone-influencing designs (i.e., in reducing or inhibiting muscle tone) has been sufficiently proven.
Complete the JPO Self-Assessment Examination on the previous page and score a minimum of 75 percent to earn two PCE credits. Send the completed examination and payment in U.S. currency ($20/AAOP members, $50 nonmembers) to: AAOP, 1331 H Street, NW, Suite 501, Washington, DC 20005. The examination must be received by the AAOP within 3 years of the publication date for credit to be awarded.
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