The aim of this investigation was to examine graduating orthopedic resident case logs to evaluate trends in performing pediatric orthopedic procedures and compare pediatric orthopedic case volume among residents in the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles (by case volume) to identify caseload variation. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education orthopedic resident case logs were examined for graduating years 2007–2013. Linear regression analyses were carried out to assess temporal trends in pediatric orthopedic case volume. Subgroup analyses were carried out to assess trends in cases by anatomic location. Comparisons of the number of pediatric cases performed by the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles of graduating residents were also performed. Pediatric orthopedic case volume increased significantly per graduating resident (295.9–373.2; P<0.001) from 2007 to 2013. Graduating residents in the 90th (494–573; P=0.001), 50th (264–334; P<0.001), and 10th (144–216; P=0.003) percentiles of case volume all sustained significant increases in the number of pediatric orthopedic cases performed. Subgroup analyses showed significant increases in pediatric orthopedic shoulder (4.8–7.3; P<0.001), humerus/elbow (25.9–32.7; P<0.001), forearm/wrist (28.6–40.4; P<0.001), hand/finger (15–16.9; P=0.005), femur/knee (44.5–51.9; P=0.002), leg/ankle (39.4–41.1; P=0.004), and spine case volume (24.9–33.6; P<0.001). On average, graduating residents in the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles performed 524, 302, and 169 cases, respectively. The current investigation shows significant growth in the number of pediatric orthopedic cases performed by graduating residents, particularly among upper extremity procedures. However, considerable variation in pediatric orthopedic case volume exists among residents. Although the educational effects of this case volume variation are incompletely understood, the current investigation may be beneficial in efforts to improve pediatric orthopedic educational quality.