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Age-related changes in physical examination and gait parameters in normally developing children and adolescents

Lee, Seung Yeola,*; Lee, Sang Hyeongb,*; Chung, Chin Youba; Park, Moon Seoka; Lee, Kyoung Mina; Akhmedov, Bekhzada; Choi, In Hoc; Cho, Tae-Joonc; Yoo, Won Joonc; Sung, Ki Hyuka

Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B: March 2013 - Volume 22 - Issue 2 - p 153–157
doi: 10.1097/BPB.0b013e32835b2e7f

This study aimed to examine the correlations between physical examinations and gait kinematics, and age-related changes in 47 normally developing children. Physical examinations were not found to be significantly correlated with kinematics, except for Thomas and Staheli tests. Unilateral and bilateral popliteal angles decreased significantly by 2.2 and 1.6° per annum, and ankle dorsiflexion with knee extension and 90° flexion decreased significantly by 0.7 and 0.8°. Physical examinations and gait parameters might represent different dimensions of gait, and care should be taken when assessing gait problems. Age-related changes should be considered when interpreting physical examination and gait kinematics for surgery.

aDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital

bDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Kyungki

cDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Children’s Hospital, Seoul, Korea

*Seung Yeol Lee and Sang Hyeong Lee contributed equally to the writing of this article.

Correspondence to Ki Hyuk Sung, MD, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-Dong, Bundang-Gu, Sungnam, Kyungki 463-707, Korea Tel: +82 31 787 7199; fax: +82 31 787 4056; e-mail:

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.