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Reimers Jørgen M.D.; Pedersen, Bente M.D.; Brodersen, Anne
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics B: 1995
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We report the results of examination in 1991 of 759 children and adolescents between 3 and 17 years old, comprising 98% of pupils in different age groups from seven schools and ten kindergartens in Funen (Denmark). The triceps surae was considered to be short if the foot held with the talus in neutral position relative to the calcaneus could only be dorsiflexed to a right angle. The proportion of children with shortening of one or both triceps surae rose from 24% to 62% between the ages of 3 and 17 years with no difference between the sexes. In 13% of adolescents, one or both feet failed to reach a right angle by ≥5°. Footprints made in 1,520 feet showed that the proportion of feet with a high arch increased from 2% to 7%; there was a smaller number of such feet with a short triceps surae than in feet with a normal arch. The proportion of feet with a flat arch declined from 42% to 6% in spite of a strong relationship with a short triceps surae. In the oldest age group, all the flat feet had a short triceps surae, which is probably one of the reasons for the persistence of the deformity.

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