Feature Articles: Continuing EducationComparing the Analgesic Effects of 4 Nonpharmacologic Interventions on Term Newborns Undergoing Heel Lance A Randomized Controlled TrialChang, Jie MMed; Filoteo, Lourdes BSN; Nasr, Annette S. PhDAuthor Information Maternity Department (Mss Chang and Filoteo) and Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice (Dr Nasr), Stanford Children's Health, Palo Alto, California; and Department of Pediatrics, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California (Dr Nasr). Corresponding Author: Jie Chang, MMed, Maternity Department, Stanford Children's Health, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, 725 Welch Rd, Palo Alto, CA 94036 ([email protected]). This study was underwritten by the Lucile Packard Foundation Children's Health Fund and the Stanford NIH CTSA (UL1RR025744). The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the following phlebotomists from Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford: Mary Chan, Elisabeth Merkel, Suzan Carmichael, Peiyi Kan, Sandra Blackmon, Claire Daniels, Larisa Ibragimova, Fe Khan, Eleanor Lin, Neila Lorenzi, and Carol L. Schulze. Trial Registration: NCT03421158 (retrospectively registered). Disclosure: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Each author has indicated that he or she has met the journal's requirements for Authorship. Submitted for publication: July 13, 2019; accepted for publication: January 20, 2020. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing: October/December 2020 - Volume 34 - Issue 4 - p 338-345 doi: 10.1097/JPN.0000000000000495 Buy CE Test Metrics Abstract This randomized trial compared the analgesic effect of 4 nonpharmacologic interventions (breastfeeding, oral sucrose, nonnutritive sucking, and skin-to-skin contact) on term newborns between 24 and 48 hours of age who underwent a heel lance. The Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale was used to evaluate pain. The newborns (N = 226) were assigned to one of 4 intervention groups (n = 176) or a control group without pain intervention (n = 50). The results indicate that all intervention groups showed decreased pain levels when compared with the control group (P < .01). The oral sucrose group experienced a superior analgesic effect when compared with the skin-to-skin contact group (P < .01), but no difference was observed when compared with the breastfeeding group (P > .05) or the nonnutritive sucking group (P > .05). All intervention groups showed a shortened crying time (P < .01) and reduced procedural duration (P < .01) compared with the control group. All of these interventions are clinically applicable and acceptable when caring for a newborn during a minor painful procedure. © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.