Obstetrics Initiative, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Mss Brown and Moore); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Ms Keer); and School of Nursing, Women's and Gender Studies Department and Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (Dr Kane Low).
Corresponding Author: Lisa Kane Low, PhD, CNM, School of Nursing, Women's and Gender Studies Department and Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, University of Michigan, 400 North Ingalls Ste 3160, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 ([email protected]).
This study included data from the Obstetrics Initiative (OBI), which is a statewide quality improvement collaborative. Support for the Obstetrics Initiative is provided by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and Blue Care Network as part of the BCBSM Value Partnerships program; however, the opinions, beliefs, and viewpoints expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect those of BCBSM or any of its employees.
Disclosure: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.
Each author has indicated that he or she has met the journal's requirements for Authorship.
Submitted for publication: September 22, 2021; accepted for publication: October 19, 2021.