Feature Articles: Continuing EducationThe Effects of an Infant Calming Intervention on Mothers' Parenting Self-Efficacy and Satisfaction During the Postpartum Period A Randomized Controlled TrialBotha, Elina MHSc, RM, RN; Helminen, Mika MSc; Kaunonen, Marja PhD; Lubbe, Welma PhD; Joronen, Katja PhDAuthor Information Faculty of Social Sciences, Health Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland (Ms Botha, Mr Helminen, and Drs Kaunonen and Joronen); Research, Development and Innovation Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland (Mr Helminen); General Administration, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland (Dr Kaunonen); and School of Nursing Science/NuMIQ Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa (Dr Lubbe). Corresponding Author: Elina Botha, MHSc, RM, RN, Faculty of Social Sciences, Health Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere University, Tampere 33014, Finland ([email protected]). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04296656 This work was supported by the Foundation for Research in Tampere, the Mannerheim League for Child Welfare in Finland, and the Federation of Finnish Midwives. The authors thank the mothers who participated in this study. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citation appears in the printed text and is provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.jpnnjournal.com). Disclosure: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Each author has indicated that he or she has met the journal's requirements for Authorship. Submitted for publication: April 1, 2020; accepted for publication: June 3, 2020. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing: October/December 2020 - Volume 34 - Issue 4 - p 300-310 doi: 10.1097/JPN.0000000000000510 Buy SDC Take the CE Test Metrics Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a behavioral infant calming technique to support mothers' parenting self-efficacy and parenting satisfaction. The methods of this randomized controlled trial are based on the CONSORT guidelines. Data were collected during March 1 to May 20, 2019, from 3 postpartum units in 1 university-level hospital in Finland. A total of 250 mothers agreed to participate, of which 120 were randomly allocated to the intervention group and 130 to the control group. All mothers completed a baseline questionnaire before randomization. Mothers in the intervention group were taught the 5 S's infant calming technique. The control group received standard care. Follow-up data were collected 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome measure was the change in parenting self-efficacy and parenting satisfaction scores over the follow-up period. The intervention group showed significantly larger improvements in parenting self-efficacy scores. There were no statistically significant differences in median improvements in parenting satisfaction. The 5 S's infant calming technique is feasible. These study findings may assist midwifery and neonatal nursing staff to support mothers and families during the postpartum period, whether the infants are fussy or not. © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.