FEATURE ARTICLES: Continuing EducationA Review of Postpartum Depression, Preterm Birth, and CultureGulamani, Salima S. MScN; Premji, Shahirose Sadrudin PhD; Kanji, ZeenatKhanu PhD; Azam, Syed Iqbal PhDAuthor Information School of Nursing and Midwifery (Ms Gulamani and Dr Kanji), Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada (Dr Premji); and Community Health Sciences Department, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan (Dr Azam). Corresponding Author: Shahirose Sadrudin Premji, PhD, Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada ([email protected]). This work stems from a thesis that was undertaken at the School of Nursing, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan, as part of the requi-rement of the Master of Science in Nursing Degree. The thesis work was funded by the Aga Khan University Master of Science in Nursing Student Thesis Budget. The thesis was awarded a Sigma Theta Tau International Chapter Research Award, 2010. The authors thank Jennifer Carkner for providing technical assistance in the preparation of the manuscript. Disclosure: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Submitted for publication: October 21, 2011; accepted for publication: November 26, 2012. The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing: January/March 2013 - Volume 27 - Issue 1 - p 52-59 doi: 10.1097/JPN.0b013e31827fcf24 Buy Take the CE Test Metrics Abstract Postpartum depression (PPD) varies worldwide and is considered a serious issue because of its devastating effects on mothers, families, and infants or children. Preterm birth may be a risk factor for PPD. In 2005, the global incidence of preterm birth was estimated to be 9.6%, and of these births, 85% occurred in Africa and Asia. Among Asian countries, Pakistan has a preterm birth rate of 15.7% and the highest prevalence rate of PPD (63.3%). A literature review was therefore undertaken to better understand the potential contribution of preterm birth to PPD and to identify gaps in the scientific literature. Limited studies compare prevalence rates of PPD in mothers of full-term infants and mothers of preterm infants. Furthermore, meta-analyses examining predictors of PPD have not included preterm birth as a variable. The interrelationship between preterm birth and PPD may be explained by early parental stress and mother-infant interaction among mothers of preterm infants. Culture plays an important role in shaping communication between mothers and their infants and defines social support rituals that may or may not mediate PPD. More research is needed to provide evidence for practice. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.