GeneticsNoninvasive Means of Identifying Fetuses with Possible Down Syndrome: A ReviewKubas, Cheryl MS Author Information Genetic Counselor, Maternal Fetal Center,Florida Hospital, Orlando, Florida (Kubas) Sumitted for Publication: January 19, 1999 Accepted for publication: March 30, 1999 The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing 13(2):p 27-46, September 1999. Buy Abstract Women who are 35 years or older are offered invasive prenatal testing becauseof the increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities, especially Down syndrome. In an attempt to increase the number of Down syndrome fetuses being detected and decrease the number of invasive procedures being performed on pregnancies not affected with a chromosome abnormality, both biochemical and ultrasound screening methods are being studied and are summarized in this article. The ultrasound markers reviewed include increased nuchal thickness, increased nuchal lucency, shortened femur, shortened humerus, pyelectasis, hypoplastic ears,echogenic intracardiac focus, hypoplasia of the fifth middle phalanx, and echogenic bowel. Copyright © 1999 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.