Clinical and Laboratory ObservationsFatal Pulmonary Hemorrhage Associated With Micrococcal Infection in Two Children With Acute Lymphoblastic LeukemiaPayne, Jeanette H. MRCPCH; Welch, Jennifer C. MRCPath; Vora, Ajay J. FRCPathAuthor Information From the Department of Hematology, Sheffield Children's Hospital, Western Bank, Sheffield, United Kingdom. Received for publication February 6, 2003; accepted May 5, 2003. Reprints: Dr. Ajay J. Vora, Consultant Pediatric Hematologist, Sheffield Children's Hospital, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TH, United Kingdom (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: December 2003 - Volume 25 - Issue 12 - p 969-974 Buy Abstract Pulmonary hemorrhage is a rare cause of death in patients with acute leukemia. Within a 2-month period the authors observed two fatal pediatric cases, which were associated with opportunistic organisms of the genus Micrococcus. Both patients were receiving consolidation treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The authors discuss the causes of pulmonary hemorrhage in patients with leukemia and review the relevant literature. Micrococci have previously been considered as non-pathogenic, but there is considerable evidence for morbidity and mortality occurring, particularly in immunocompromised patients. The authors propose that micrococcal infection may have been a major predisposing factor for pulmonary hemorrhage in these thrombocytopenic patients. © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.