Review ArticleAutoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in Children: Laboratory Investigation, Disease Associations, and Treatment StrategiesBlackall, Douglas MD, MPH*; Dolatshahi, Lily MD† Author Information *Department of Pathology and Laboratory Services, Providence Health and Services, Portland, OR †Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Douglas Blackall, MD, MPH, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Services, Providence Health and Services, 4400 NE Halsey Street, Building 3, Portland, OR 97213 (e-mail: [email protected]). Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: April 2022 - Volume 44 - Issue 3 - p 71-78 doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000002438 Buy Metrics Abstract Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a relatively uncommon pediatric clinical condition. As such, the evaluation and management of these cases can be challenging for even the most seasoned pediatrician. In this review, the 3 major forms of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in children will be discussed: warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cold agglutinin disease, and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria. After a general description of the laboratory approach to these entities, the pathophysiology of these disease processes, including important disease associations, will be described, and treatment strategies will be discussed. This will provide the reader with a rational approach to identifying and managing pediatric patients with these uncommon autoimmune conditions. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.