Original ArticlesReduction of Extramedullary Complications in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treated With AzacitidineShabanova, Iren BSc*,†; Cada, Michaela MD, FRCP(C)†; Johnston, Donna L. MD, FRCP(C)‡; Abbott, Lesleigh S. MD, FRCP(C)‡; Leung, Elaine W. MD, FRCP(C)‡; Schechter, Tal MD, FRCP(C)§; Dror, Yigal MD, FRCP(C)*,†,∥; Klaassen, Robert J. MD, FRCP(C)‡Author Information *Genetics and Genome Biology Program †Marrow Failure and Myelodysplasia Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology §Bone Marrow Transplantation Program, Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children ∥Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto ‡Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada Y.D. and R.J.K. contributed equally and are co-senior authors. I.S.: performed research, data analysis, and wrote the manuscript. M.C., D.L.J., L.S.A., E.W.L., and T.S.: performed data acquisition and wrote the manuscript. Y.D.: designed the study, supervised the research, perform research and wrote the manuscript. R.J.K.: performed research, supervised and wrote the manuscript. Supported by the C17 Research Network Canada, The Aplastic Anemia Association of Canada, and Alexion Canada. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Yigal Dror, MD, FRCP(C), Marrow Failure and Myelodysplasia Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Received October 11, 2018 Accepted January 26, 2020 Online date: March 3, 2020 Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: April 2020 - Volume 42 - Issue 3 - p 170-174 doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000001763 Buy Metrics Abstract The distinction between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often relies on an arbitrary marrow blast cutoff of 30% in pediatrics and 20% in adults. There is little data about the treatment of children with extramedullary myeloid malignancy that has features of both, MDS and AML. Herein, we report for the first time 2 patients MDS/AML (1 with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and 1 with idiopathic MDS and monosomy 7) who presented with extramedullary complications, received treatment with azacitidine, achieved complete remission and subsequently underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.