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Testis Involvement in Neuroblastoma

Report of 3 Cases in the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group-Neuroblastoma Study and Review of the Literature

Kebudi, Rejin, MD*,†; Koc, Begum Sirin, MD*; Akici, Ferhan, MD; Cakir, Fatma Betul, MD§; Gorgun, Omer, MD*,†; Olgun, Nur, MD

Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: January 2019 - Volume 41 - Issue 1 - p 13–16
doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000001316
Original Articles

Background: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. Primary and secondary testicular involvement is extremely uncommon in neuroblastoma.

Procedure: All children with neuroblastoma treated with the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)-Neuroblastoma (NB) Study and who had testis involvement either at diagnosis or at relapse were retrospectively evaluated. A review of all cases with neuroblastoma and testis involvement in the literature was done.

Results: There were 3 children with NB documented to have involvement of the testis, 2 at diagnosis, 1 at recurrence, within the 559 cases (0.5%) treated with the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)-Neuroblastoma Protocol. All had advanced stage. Two were infants. A total of 57 cases of testicular or paratesticular neuroblastoma have been reported in children, and most cases represent metastases as in the 3 cases in our series.

Conclusions: Neuroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular mass and work-up for neuroblastoma should be done before orchiectomy. Scrotal ultrasonography should be used as the first diagnostic tool and abdominal ultrasonography shall be done additionally. Testis examination should be performed at diagnosis and regularly during follow-up for boys diagnosed with neuroblastoma. Testes may be sanctuary sites when neuroblastoma is metastatic, as is the case in leukemia.

*Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa

Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Oncology Institute, Istanbul University

Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital, Division of Pediatric Oncology

§Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, School of Medicine, Bezmi Alem University, Istanbul

Division of Pediatric Oncology, Oncology Institute, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Reprints: Rejin Kebudi, MD, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty & Oncology Institute, Istanbul University, Çapa, Istanbul 34390, Turkey (e-mail:

Received April 8, 2018

Accepted August 29, 2018

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