Review ArticleDemodicosis in Pediatric Cancervan Atteveld, Jenneke E. BSc*; Graaf, Marlies de MD, PhD†; Grotel, Martine van MD, PhD*; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M. MD, PhD* Author Information *Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology †Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center-Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Marry M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink, MD, PhD, Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Room: KE.01.129.2, Postbus 85090, Utrecht 3508 AB, The Netherlands (e-mail: [email protected]). Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: July 2017 - Volume 39 - Issue 5 - p 402-406 doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000836 Buy Metrics Abstract Demodicosis is a rare condition that most often occurs in immunocompromised patients. We here describe a boy with T-cell non–Hodgkin lymphoma who developed a facial papulopustular eruption just before finalizing T-cell non–Hodgkin lymphoma treatment. He was treated for several infectious diseases without improvement. Demodicosis was considered and complete resolution was finally reached with topical metronidazole. We conducted a systematic search of all previously described cases of this condition in children with cancer, which showed that almost all demodicosis cases occurred in patients with lymphoreticular malignancies during maintenance chemotherapy. Hence, demodicosis may be seriously considered in antibiotic-resistant facial papulopustular eruptions in this group of patients to prevent delay of adequate treatment. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.