Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) denotes the common final pathway of a potentially fatal hyperinflammatory condition of diverse etiologies. We describe the first case of documented HLH associated with human parechovirus 3. A monoallelic Ala91Val mutation was found in the PRF1 gene, but the contribution of this mutation to HLH remains controversial. The diagnosis, based on accepted criteria, was established early in the course of the disease and led to successful treatment and complete recovery. The awareness of this new association is clinically important in facilitating early treatment, preventing organ damage, and increasing the likelihood of complete recovery.
*Department of Pediatrics, The Barzilai Medical Center
†Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, The Barzilai Medical Center Campus, Ashkelon
‡Central Virology Laboratory, Public Health Services, Israel Ministry of Health, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer
§Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
∥Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Reprints: Shraga Aviner, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, The Barzilai Medical Center, 2 Hahistadrut Street, Ashkelon 78278, Israel (e-mail: email@example.com).
Received May 27, 2013
Accepted August 20, 2013