Clinical and Laboratory ObservationsSuccessful Treatment of Congenital Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M6) in a Premature Infantvan Dongen, Joyce C. A.*; Dalinghaus, Michiel MD, PhD†; Kroon, Andre A. MD‡; de Vries, Andrica C. H. MD*; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M. MD, PhD*Author Information Departments of *Pediatric Oncology/Hematology †Cardiology ‡Neonatology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Reprints: Marry M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, Room Sp 2568, ErasmusMC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Received for publication February 24, 2009; accepted May 18, 2009 Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: November 2009 - Volume 31 - Issue 11 - p 853-854 doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e3181b38b6c Buy Metrics Abstract Congenital acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and especially AML-M6 is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. Moreover, reports of treatment outcome of congenital AML-M6 in premature infants are not available. We report the first treated case of congenital AML-M6 in a premature girl, who received a full AML protocol. She presented with blueberry-muffin spots, anemia, high white blood cell count, and serious cardiopulmonary distress. Peripheral blood smears showed AML-M6 blasts. After treatment with a sequential low-dose cytarabine after birth and full-dose AML treatment according to the MRC-12 protocol at the age of 2 months, she now is in continuous complete remission for 4 years. © 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.