Development of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is increasingly being recognized as a complication of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in children.
To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of moderate to severe PTS in children.
A retrospective chart review was performed on those children who were followed in the coagulation clinic for objectively confirmed DVTs from December 2004 to December 2006. The scoring system used by Kuhle et al was used to grade the severity of PTS as: mild, moderate, and severe.
PTS developed in 20% (11/55; 95% confidence interval 9.4-30.1) of children, in which 8/11 were moderate and 3/11 were severe. Median interval between diagnosis of PTS and DVT was 90 days (range, 46 d to 3 y). The majority (72.7%) of patients in the non-PTS group received treatment intervention within 48 hours of diagnosis of DVT. Delay in treatment initiation (>48 h) and recurrence of DVT were associated with the development of PTS (P<0.05). Variables including occlusive thrombus, location and number of vessels involved with DVT, age at diagnosis, underlying thrombophilia, intensity of anticoagulation, and body mass index were not associated with the development of PTS. Other debilitating consequences of DVT requiring intervention included portal hypertension (n=2), chylothorax (n=1), and reflux sympathetic dystrophy (n=1). The small sample size and limited follow up restricted the statistical analysis.
PTS is a significant problem in children with symptomatic DVTs. Early treatment intervention within the first 48 hours of diagnosis of DVT and prevention of thrombosis recurrence may prevent development of PTS. Although PTS refers to consequences of intravenous hypertension owing to extremity DVTs, sequlae of nonextremity DVTs require special consideration in pediatric PTS classification.
*Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Indianapolis, IN
†Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
Reprints: Anjali Alatkar Sharathkumar, MD, Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, 8402 Harcourt Road/Suite 500, Indianapolis, IN 46260 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Received for publication July 3, 2007; accepted November 6, 2007