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Frank Graeme R. M.D.; Cherrick, Irene M.D.; Karayalcin, Gungor M.D.; Valderrama, Elsa M.D.; Lanzkowsky, Philip M.D.
American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: August 1994
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Purpose

We describe for the first time the case of a child with Kawasaki syndrome and associated transient erythroblastopenia.

Patients and Methods

A 51/2-month-old infant with Kawasaki syndrome as evidenced by lymphadenopathy, fever, rash conjunctival injection, and extremity changes had associated anemia and reticulocytopenia requiring transfusion and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration was consistent with a transient erythroblastopenia. She developed cardiac aneurysms despite therapy with i.v. immunoglobulin and aspirin.

Results

The anemia and reticulocytopenia resolved with normalization of her hemoglobin. The platelet count increased and she developed a thrombocytosis characteristic of this clinical entity. She completely recovered without recurrence of either the anemia or reticulocytopenia.

Conclusions

We speculate that the cause of the erythroblastopenia and thrombocytopenia is an inflammatory insult of Kawasaki syndrome on the bone marrow and its various lineages causing the myriad hematological abnormalities now associated with Kawasaki syndrome. It is possible that the i.v. immunoglobulin aids in neutralizing the triggering agent and therefore shortening the duration of the marrow insult.

© Lippincott-Raven Publishers.