Resistance to isoniazid (INH) only (monoresistance), with drug susceptibility to rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol at diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) disease, can increase the length of treatment.
To describe US trends in INH monoresistance and associated patient characteristics.
We performed trend and cross-sectional analyses of US National Tuberculosis Surveillance System surveillance data. We used Joinpoint regression to analyze annual trends in INH monoresistance and logistic regression to identify patient characteristics associated with INH monoresistance.
Culture-positive cases reported to National Tuberculosis Surveillance System during 1993-2016 with drug susceptibility test results to INH, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol.
Main Outcome Measures:
(1) Trends in INH monoresistance; (2) odds ratios for factors associated with INH monoresistance.
Isoniazid monoresistance increased significantly from 4.1% of all TB cases in 1993 to 4.9% in 2016. Among US-born patients, INH monoresistance increased significantly from 2003 onward (annual percentage change = 2.8%; 95% confidence interval: 1.4-4.2). During 2003-2016, US-born persons with INH-monoresistant TB were more likely to be younger than 65 years; to be Asian; to be human immunodeficiency virus–infected; or to be a correctional facility resident at the time of diagnosis. Among non–US-born persons, INH resistance did not change significantly during 1993-2016 (annual percentage change = −0.3%; 95% confidence interval: –0.7 to 0.2) and was associated with being aged 15 to 64 years; being Asian, black, or Hispanic; or having a previous history of TB.
INH-monoresistant TB has been stable since 1993 among non–US-born persons; it has increased 2.8% annually among US-born persons during 2003-2016. Reasons for this increase should be further investigated.