In response to numerous mumps
outbreaks reported throughout the United States in 2016 and 2017, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP
) recommended a third dose of measles, mumps
, and rubella (MMR) vaccine for groups of persons determined by public health authorities to be at increased risk for acquiring mumps
because of an outbreak.
To provide guidance for health departments when implementing the ACIP
Draft guidance was developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention subject matter experts based on technical consultations with health departments and review of published and unpublished data regarding mumps
outbreaks. The guidance was finalized based on input from experts from the ACIP Mumps
Work Group and local and state epidemiologists through the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and the National Association of County and City Health Officials.
We developed guidance to assist public health authorities when determining which groups are at increased risk for acquiring mumps
and should receive a third dose of MMR vaccine. During outbreaks, public health authorities identify groups of persons with known or likely close contact exposure to a mumps
patient. Then, evidence of transmission and likelihood of transmission in a group's setting can be used to determine whether these groups are at increased risk. Additional epidemiologic and implementation factors may also be considered. All persons in the group at increased risk for acquiring mumps
should receive a dose of MMR vaccine, including those with unknown vaccination status or those who have evidence of presumptive immunity other than documented 2 doses of MMR vaccine; no additional dose is recommended for persons who had received 3 or more doses before the outbreak.
This guidance provides a framework for public health authorities to use when considering a third dose of MMR in response to mumps
outbreaks while maintaining flexibility to incorporate local factors related to individual outbreaks.