In the United States, human papillomavirus vaccination was routinely recommended for adolescent females in 2006 and provisionally recommended for adolescent males in 2009. We evaluated the hypothesis that gender-specific human papillomavirus vaccination recommendations would impact gender-specific uptake of other vaccines using National Immunization Survey-Teen public use data sets (2008-2012). Female adolescents had higher coverage than males of at least 1 other adolescent vaccine in 2008 (3.0% higher) and 2009 (4.3% higher). Gender differences abated in 2010, 2011, and 2012 (0.2%, 0.9%, and 0.4%, respectively). To evaluate unintended consequences of gender-based recommendations, countries with female-only human papillomavirus vaccination recommendations should evaluate gender-specific uptake of other adolescent vaccines.
Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.
Department of Global Health and Epidemiology, Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health; Emory Vaccine Center; and Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (Dr Bednarczyk); Emory Vaccine Center, and School of Medicine, Infectious Disease, Atlanta, Georgia (Dr Orenstein); and Department of Global Health and Epidemiology, Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health; Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University; and Emory Vaccine Center, Atlanta, Georgia (Dr Omer).
Correspondence: Robert A. Bednarczyk, PhD, Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, CNR 7019, Mailstop 1518-002-7BB, 1518 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta GA 30322 (email@example.com).
Portions of this research were presented to the Association of Immunization Managers Promising Practices webinar, September 2014, and at the 8th Vaccine & ISV Congress, October 2014, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
This research was supported in part by NIH grant 1K01AI106961-A1.
The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
National Immunization Survey-Teen data sets from 2008 to 2012 are available from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nis/data_files_teen.htm). All analyses, interpretations, or conclusions reached are attributed to the authors and not to the National Center for Health Statistics, which is responsible only for the initial data.
Dr Bednarczyk contributed to the initial conception and design of the study, data analysis and interpretation, and statistical analysis, and he drafted the first draft of the manuscript. Dr Bednarczyk had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Dr Orenstein contributed to the conception and design of the study, data interpretation, and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual contributions. Dr Omer contributed to the conception and design of the study, data interpretation, and critical review of the manuscript for important intellectual contributions.
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (http://www.JPHMP.com).