MINI REVIEWFunctional expression of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase NAT1*10 and NAT1*11 alleles a mini reviewHein, David W.a; Fakis, Giannoulisb; Boukouvala, SotiriabAuthor Information aDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, Kentucky, USA bDepartment of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece Correspondence to David W. Hein, PhD, Kosair Charities Clinical and Translational Research Building, Room 303, 505 South Hancock Street, Louisville, KY 40202-1617, USA Tel: +1 502 852 6252; fax: +1 502 852 7868; e-mail: [email protected] Received May 17, 2018 Accepted August 28, 2018 Pharmacogenetics and Genomics: October 2018 - Volume 28 - Issue 10 - p 238-244 doi: 10.1097/FPC.0000000000000350 Buy Metrics Abstract The arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) nomenclature committee assigns functional phenotypes for human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) alleles in those instances in which the committee determined a consensus has been achieved in the scientific literature. In the most recent nomenclature update, the committee announced that functional phenotypes for NAT1*10 and NAT1*11 alleles were not provided owing to a lack of consensus. Phenotypic inconsistencies observed among various studies for NAT1*10 and NAT1*11 may be owing to variable allelic expression among different tissues, the limitations of the genotyping assays (which mostly relied on techniques not involving direct DNA sequencing), the differences in recombinant protein expression systems used (bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cell lines) and/or the known inherent instability of human NAT1 protein, which requires very careful handling of native and recombinant cell lysates. Three recent studies provide consistent evidence of the mechanistic basis underlying the functional phenotype of NAT1*10 and NAT1*11 as ‘increased-activity’ alleles. Some NAT1 variants (e.g. NAT1*14, NAT1*17, and NAT1*22) may be designated as ‘decreased-activity’ alleles and other NAT1 variants (e.g. NAT1*15 and NAT1*19) may be designated as ‘no-activity’ alleles compared with the NAT1*4 reference allele. We propose that phenotypic designations as ‘rapid’ and ‘slow’ acetylator should be discontinued for NAT1 alleles, although these designations remain very appropriate for NAT2 alleles. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.