This study evaluated the association between environmental factors and genetic variations in enzymes that metabolize antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs [arylamine N
-acetyltransferase 2, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S
-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), and glutathione S
-transferase mu 1] with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH). We also investigated the potential gene–gene and gene–environment interactions as well as their association with ATDH development in a population of hospitalized TB patients from Buenos Aires.
Patients and methods
We investigated 364 TB patients who received anti-TB drugs. Physicians collected demographic and clinical data to identify environmental risk factors for ATDH development. Polymorphisms were detected using gene sequencing, PCR, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to compare the results of TB patients with and without the development of hepatotoxicity. The multifactor dimensionality reduction method was used to examine genetic and environmental interactions in association with ATDH.
This study suggests that the slow acetylator profile [odds ratio (OR): 3.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82–5.00; P
<0.001], genotypes carrying the c2 variant (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.33–3.51; P
=0.002) or the A4 variant of CYP2E1
(OR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.06–4.29; P
=0.050), and female sex (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.20–3.14; P
=0.006) were independent predictor variables for ATDH. Patients carrying the slow acetylator profile and the c2 variant showed an increased risk (OR: 7.068; 95% CI: 3.34–14.95; P
<0.001). We also identified a synergic interaction (epistasis) between GSTT1
associated with an increased risk for ATDH. A meaningful gene–environment interaction was associated with an increased risk of ATDH [testing balance accuracy=0.675 (P
=0.001) and cross-validation consistency=10/10].
ATDH is a severe and prevalent adverse drug reaction and leads to drug discontinuation in 11% of TB patients. Our study created a prediction model that properly classified the 67.5% of TB patients in their risk of developing ATDH. The considerable number of TB patients in our country supports the use of pharmacogenetic testing and a comprehensive clinical history to identify patients with a high risk of suffering hepatotoxicity.