Genetic factors influence susceptibility to preterm birth (PTB) and the immune pathway of PTB that involves the production of cytokines such as interleukins has been implicated in PTB disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of interleukin 1β (IL1B) gene polymorphisms and IL1B levels with spontaneous PTB.
Peripheral maternal blood from 495 women was used for extraction of DNA and genotyping was carried out using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Maternal plasma was used to measure IL1B levels.
There was no significant association between the allelic and genotype distribution of IL1B single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs1143634, rs1143627, rs16944) and the risk of PTB among Malaysian Malay women (rs1143634, P=0.722; rs1143627, P=0.543; rs16944, P=0.615). However, IL1B levels were significantly different between women who delivered preterm compared with those who delivered at term (P=0.030); high mean levels were observed among Malay women who delivered at preterm (mean=32.52) compared with term (mean=21.68). IL1B SNPs were not associated with IL1B plasma levels.
This study indicates a significant association between IL1B levels and reduced risk of PTB among the Malaysian Malay women. This study shows the impact of IL1B levels on susceptibility to PTB disease; however, the high levels of IL1B observed among women in the preterm group are not associated with IL1B SNPs investigated in this study; IL1B high levels may be because of other factors not explored in this study and therefore warrant further investigation.