Long-acting β2-agonists and leukotriene receptor antagonists are two principal agents that can be added to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) for patients with asthma that is not adequately controlled by ICS alone. The Gly16Arg genotype of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene may influence the bronchodilator effects of β2-agonists. We hypothesized that differential responses to long-acting β2-agonists or leukotriene receptor antagonists might be determined partly by the Gly16Arg polymorphism in Japanese asthma patients.
Materials and methods
This randomized, genotype-stratified, two-period crossover study included 80 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma (35 Arg/Arg and 45 Gly/Gly individuals). The primary study outcome was the difference in peak expiratory flow (ΔPEF) (ΔPEF, l/min) by genotype after 16 weeks of treatment with salmeterol (ΔPEFsal) or montelukast (ΔPEFmon). In addition, multivariate analyses were used to identify independent factors that were predictive of responses to each treatment.
The mean ΔPEFsal−ΔPEFmon was 19.3±46.6 among Arg/Arg individuals and 16.8±51.5 among Gly/Gly individuals, indicating that the Gly16Arg genotype did not influence the differential bronchodilator effect of the two agents. Multivariate analysis showed that higher peripheral eosinophil counts were associated with better response to salmeterol (P<0.05).
The Gly16Arg genotype did not influence the differential bronchodilator effect of salmeterol or montelukast as an add-on therapy to ICS within 16 weeks of follow-up. Higher peripheral eosinophil counts may be associated with better responses to salmeterol in combination with ICS.