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Oxylipins and Free Fatty Acids in Parenteral Lipid Emulsions Currently Used in Preterm Infant Care

An in Vitro Study

Suganuma, Hiroki*,†; Collins, Carmel T.*,†; McPhee, Andrew J.*,‡; Ge, Liu*; Gibson, Robert A.*,§

Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition: April 15, 2019 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - p
doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002369
Short Communication: PDF Only

ABSTRACT Lipid emulsions used to support nutrition in preterm infants contain long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) as a source of essential fatty acids; these LCPUFAs and their parent PUFA can be oxidized by a variety of mechanisms to bioactive molecules called oxylipins, which are signaling molecules that initiate and/or resolve inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore levels of free LCPUFA and their related oxylipins in three commercially available lipid emulsions (Intralipid, SMOFlipid and ClinOleic) using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy. Free LCPUFA were detected in all lipid emulsions tested. Seven, eight and nine different oxylipin compounds were detected in the three emulsions respectively. The oxylipins detected were mainly derived from omega-6 PUFAs; these included 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid (LA) and 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid derived from arachidonic acid (AA). It may be clinically important to know that oxylipins exist in lipid emulsions and to evaluate their potential effects on preterm infants.

*Healthy Mothers, Babies and Children, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Discipline of Paediatrics, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Neonatal Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

§School of Agriculture Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Robert A. Gibson, School of Agriculture Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, The University of Adelaide Urrbrae, SA 5064, Australia (e-mail:

Received 24 September, 2018

Accepted 28 March, 2019

Sources of funding: HS is supported by an overseas study scholarship from Kamisu Saiseikai Hospital, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. CTC and RAG are in receipt of National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Fellowships (APP1132596 and APP1046207 respectively). The views expressed in this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the views of the NHMRC.

Conflict of interest: RAG served on the Fonterra Scientific Advisory Board (to September 2018), honorarium was paid to support travel and consulting time. In addition, RAG has a patent 'Stabilising and analysing Fatty Acids in a biological sample stored on solid media’ licensed to Adelaide Research and Innovation, University of Adelaide. Other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Author Contributions: HS, CTC, AJM, LG and RAG conceived and designed the study. HS conducted the experiments and analyzed the data. All authors contributed to the interpretation of the results, drafting of the manuscript and approved the final version to be submitted for publication.

© 2019 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,