Antibiotic treatment in early life appears to increase the risk for childhood overweight and obesity. So far, the association between antibiotics administrated specifically during the first week of life and growth has not been studied. Therefore, we studied the association between growth and antibiotics, given in the first week of life and antibiotic courses later in the first year of life.
A prospective observational birth cohort of 436 term infants with 151 receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics for suspected neonatal infection (AB+), and 285 healthy controls (AB−) was followed during their first year. Weight, height, and additional antibiotic courses were collected monthly. A generalized-additive-mixed-effects model was used to fit the growth data. Growth curve estimation was controlled for differences in sex, gestational age, delivery mode, exclusive breast-feeding, tobacco exposure, presence of siblings, and additional antibiotic courses.
Weight-for-age and length-for-age increase was lower in AB+ compared with AB− (P < 0.0001), resulting in a lower weight and length increase 6.26 kg (standard error [SE] 0.07 kg) and 25.4 cm (SE 0.27 cm) versus 6.47 kg (SE 0.06 kg) and 26.4 cm (SE 0.21 cm) (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively) in the first year of life. Approximately 30% of the children in both groups received additional antibiotic course(s) in their first year, whereafter additional weight gain of 76 g per course was observed (P = 0.0285).
Decreased growth was observed after antibiotics in the first week of life, whereas increased growth was observed after later antibiotic course(s) in term born infants in the first year of life. Therefore, timing of antibiotics may determine the association with growth.
*Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Gastroenterology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Amsterdam Reproduction and Development, Amsterdam
†St. Antonius Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
‡Institute of Computational Science, USI, Switzerland
§Danone Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Kim Kamphorst, MSc, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Room H8.235, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands (e-mail: email@example.com).
Received 8 December, 2018
Accepted 23 March, 2019
This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT02536560 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02536560).
This study was funded by “Agentschap NL,” grant number FND-06015, by Nutricia Netherlands B.V. as part of a public private partnership, and by the Christina Bader foundation (CBSIKZ).
K.K. and B.C.O. contributed equally.
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
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