Gastrointestinal polyps are mucosal overgrowths that, if unchecked, can undergo malignant transformation. Although relatively uncommon in the pediatric age group, they can be the harbingers of multi-organ cancer risk and require close management and follow up. Additionally, as many polyposis syndromes are inherited, appropriate genetic testing and management of relatives is vital for the health of the entire family. In this review, we discuss both common and uncommon childhood gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes in terms of clinical presentation, management, and surveillance. We also detail any additional malignancy risk and surveillance required in the pediatric age group (<21 years old). Through this review, we provide a framework for gastroenterologists to manage the multifaceted nature of pediatric polyposis syndromes.
*Division of Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, PA 19104
†Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104
‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, PA 19104
§Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Suzanne P. MacFarland, MD Division of Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, CTRB Rm. 3052A, 3501 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104-4302, USA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Received 15 January, 2019
Accepted 4 April, 2019