Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) provides a long-term solution for tube dependency. Pediatric guidelines recommend prophylactic antibiotic treatment (ABT) based on adult studies.
To compare wound infection and other complications in children receiving a PEG with and without prophylactic ABT.
Retrospective study including children 0 to 18 years undergoing PEG placement. Patients with (2010–2013) and without (2000–2010) ABT were compared with respect to the occurrence of wound infection and other complications.
In total, 297 patients were included (median age 2.9 years, 53% boys). Patients receiving ABT per PEG protocol (n = 78) had a similar wound infection rate (17.9% vs 21%, P = 0.625), significantly less fever (3.8% vs 14.6%, P = 0.013), leakage (0% vs 9.1%, P = 0.003) and shorter hospital admission (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.000), but more overgranulation (28.2% vs 8.7%, P = 0.000) compared with those without (n = 219). Patients receiving any ABT, per PEG protocol or clinical indication (n = 115), had similar occurrence of wound infection (19.1% vs 20.9%, P = 0.768), fever (7.8% vs 14.3%, P = 0.100) and leakage (3.5% vs 8.8%, P = 0.096), a significantly shorter hospital admission (3 vs 4 days, P = 0.000), but more overgranulation (21.7% vs 8.8%, P =0.003) compared with those without (n = 182).
Prophylactic ABT does not seem to reduce the occurrence of wound infection but it might be beneficial with respect to fever, leakage and duration of hospital admission, but not overgranulation. A randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm our results.