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Oxylipins and Free Fatty Acids in Parenteral Lipid Emulsions Currently Used in Preterm Infant Care

An In Vitro Study

Suganuma, Hiroki*,†; Collins, Carmel T.*,†; McPhee, Andrew J.*,‡; Liu, Ge*; Gibson, Robert A.*,§

Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition: August 2019 - Volume 69 - Issue 2 - p 231–234
doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002369
Short Communications: Nutrition

ABSTRACT Lipid emulsions used to support nutrition in preterm infants contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) as a source of essential fatty acids; these LCPUFAs and their parent polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can be oxidized by a variety of mechanisms to bioactive molecules called oxylipins, which are signaling molecules that initiate and/or resolve inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore levels of free LCPUFA and their related oxylipins in 3 commercially available lipid emulsions (Intralipid, SMOFlipid, and ClinOleic) using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy. Free LCPUFA were detected in all lipid emulsions tested. Seven, 8, and 9 different oxylipin compounds were detected in the 3 emulsions, respectively. The oxylipins detected were mainly derived from omega-6 PUFAs; these included 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid derived from arachidonic acid. It may be clinically important to know that oxylipins exist in lipid emulsions and to evaluate their potential effects on preterm infants.

*Healthy Mothers, Babies and Children, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute

Discipline of Paediatrics, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide

Neonatal Medicine, Women's and Children's Hospital

§School of Agriculture Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Robert A. Gibson, PhD, School of Agriculture Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, The University of Adelaide, Urrbrae, SA 5064, Australia (e-mail:

Received 24 September, 2018

Accepted 28 March, 2019

H.S. is supported by an overseas study scholarship from Kamisu Saiseikai Hospital, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. C.T.C. and R.A.G. are in receipt of National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Fellowships (APP1132596 and APP1046207, respectively). The views expressed in this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the views of the NHMRC.

R.A.G. served on the Fonterra Scientific Advisory Board (to September 2018), honorarium was paid to support travel and consulting time. In addition, RAG has a patent 'Stabilising and Analysing Fatty Acids in a Biological Sample Stored on Solid Media’ licensed to Adelaide Research and Innovation, University of Adelaide. The remaining authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2019 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,