Secondary Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Long-term Outcomes of an Interdisciplinary Tube Weaning Program

A Quantitative Study

Marinschek, Sabine; Pahsini, Karoline; Scheer, Peter Jaron; Dunitz-Scheer, Marguerite

Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition: April 2019 - Volume 68 - Issue 4 - p 591–594
doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000002264
Original Articles: Nutrition

Background and Objectives: Children who become tube-dependent need specialized treatment in order to make the transition to oral feeding. Little is known about long-term effects of tube weaning programs. This study analyzes long-term effects (outcome, growth, and nutrition data) in a large sample of formerly tube-dependent children 1 to 6 years after participation in tube weaning programs, based on the “Graz model of tube weaning.”

Methods: Parents of children who completed a tube weaning program between 2009 and 2014 (N = 564) were asked to complete a questionnaire on their child's growth and nutrition. Data was analyzed using SPSS V22.0 for Windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL).

Results: Response rate was 47.16% (N = 266). Seven children had died between completion of the program and the long-term follow-up. Two hundred and thirty-nine children (92.3%) were still exclusively orally fed 1 to 6 years after completion of the weaning program, 17 children (6.6%) were partially tube-fed. Three children were completely tube-fed (1.1%). Growth data showed no significant changes in zBMI (World Health Organization standards z values for body mass index) between completion of weaning and long-term follow-up. Provided data on nutrition of fully orally fed patients showed that most children (N = 162, 68%) were eating an age-appropriate diet, whereas a small percentage (N = 10, 4%) were fed with a high-caloric formula, a selective diet (N = 12, 5%), or a liquid/pureed diet (N = 55, 23%).

Conclusions: Many children who undergo a tube weaning program based on the “Graz model of tube weaning” are able to stay on full oral feeds in the years after completion of the wean without deterioration of growth.

Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Sabine Marinschek, MSc, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 31, 8036 Graz, Austria (e-mail:

Received 27 June, 2018

Accepted 25 December, 2018

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text, and links to the digital files are provided in the HTML text of this article on the journal's Web site (

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2019 by European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology,