This review aims to (1) describe evidence supporting the fallopian tube as a site of high-grade serous carcinoma, (2) review literature regarding salpingectomy in high- and average-risk women, and (3) discuss feasibility and safety of salpingectomy in urogynecologic surgery.
PubMed and university library resources were used to retrieve relevant English-language publications via keyword search, including “ovarian cancer,” “salpingectomy,” “risk,” “safety,” “hysterectomy,” “trends,” “technique,” and “urogynecology.” Each publication was reviewed in detail and references incorporated, where relevant.
Evidence supports the fimbriated portion of the fallopian tube as a site of high-grade serous carcinoma in both hereditary and sporadic cases. Routine opportunistic salpingectomy in average-risk women may reduce ovarian cancer risk by 42% to 65% and prevent future surgery for benign tubal disease. Opportunistic salpingectomy is cost-effective for sterilization and cost-saving during hysterectomy. For genetically predisposed women, salpingo-oophorectomy remains the recommended strategy for ovarian cancer risk reduction. Despite being feasible, safe, and cost-effective, concomitant salpingectomy is least commonly performed during vaginal hysterectomy compared with other hysterectomy routes. Salpingectomy rates during vaginal hysterectomy are influenced by geographic factors, surgeon experience, and adhesive disease.
Opportunistic salpingectomy holds promise as a risk-reducing intervention for ovarian cancer. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology recommend that physicians counsel average-risk women regarding opportunistic salpingectomy when planning pelvic surgery. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate long-term implications of salpingectomy. Urogynecologic surgeons should discuss salpingectomy as part of surgical informed consent. Vaginal salpingectomy should be incorporated into residency and fellowship training programs.