Update on Urinary Tract Markers in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain SyndromeGrigorescu, Bogdan MD*†; Powers, Kenneth MD‡; Lazarou, George MD*§Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery: January/February 2016 - Volume 22 - Issue 1 - p 16–23 doi: 10.1097/SPV.0000000000000224 Review Buy Abstract In Brief Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Interstitial cystitis (IC)/painful bladder syndrome/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a chronic hypersensory condition of unknown etiology. Moreover, the optimal modality for diagnosing IC remains disputed. Several urinary markers have been investigated that may have potential utility in the diagnosis or confirmation of IC/BPS. Thus, inflammatory mediators, proteoglycans, urinary hexosamines, proliferative factors, nitric oxide (NO), BK polyomavirus family, and urothelial proinflammatory gene analysis have been found to correlate with varying degrees with the clinical diagnosis or cystoscopic findings in patients with IC/BPS. The most promising urinary biomarker for IC/BPS is antiproliferative factor, a sialoglycopeptide that has demonstrated inhibitory effects on urothelial cell proliferation and a high sensitivity and specificity for IC/BPS symptoms and clinical findings. In this article, we review the urinary markers, possible future therapies for IC/BPS, and the clinical relevance and controversies regarding the diagnosis of IC/BPS. In this article we review the urinary markers that may play a future role in diagnosing interstitial cystitis and painful bladder syndrome. From the *Division of Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Winthrop-University Hospital; and †Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA; ‡Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women's Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx; §State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY. Reprints: Bogdan Grigorescu, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Winthrop University Hospital, 259 First St, Mineola, NY 11501. E-mail: email@example.com. The authors have declared they have no conflicts of interest. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.