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doi: 10.1097/PPO.0000000000000481
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In the article “Causes and Consequences of microRNA Dysregulation”, published in The Cancer Journal Volume 18, issue 3, several citations were missing which are now are listed below, along with the page number in the original paper. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  1. Pg. 215: Since the first discovery, remarkable advances in the understanding of microRNA biology have been made, including: the identification of hundreds of miRNA genes; the dissection of miRNA biogenesis pathways (1);
  2. Pg. 215: The so called miRNA* was initially thought to be the strand subjected to degradation, instead more recent evidence suggests that it does not simply represent a non-functional bioproduct of miRNA biogenesis, but it can be selected as a functional strand and play significant biological roles (2).
  3. Pg. 217: As previously described, miRNAs have also been shown to be actively re-expressed after treatment with these drugs and to largely contribute to the therapeutic effects of these compounds. Even though it is tempting to suggest that many of the biological effects of these drugs may be mediated by the re-expression of non-coding RNAs, this still needs to be verified (3).
  4. Pg. 217: Nevertheless, despite the advances in our understanding of the mechanisms causing miRNA deregulation, the daunting task still remains the elucidation of the biological role of miRNAs in the initiation and in the development of cancer. (3)
  5. Page 218: Considering the different rules regulating miRNA/target interaction, and the evidence that microRNAs can target multiple molecules, it is unlikely that miRNAs will be responsible for a specific phenotype by aiming at a single target. (2)
  6. Page 219: A more recent report by Pandolfi’s group (93) has introduced the revolutionary concept that miRNA effect on mRNA containing common miRNA recognition elements (MREs) can be affected by ceRNAs (competing endogenous RNAs): RNA transcripts, both protein coding and non-coding, can compete for miRNA binding, thus co-regulating each other. (3)
  7. Pg. 219: Beside the existence of other RNAs able to interfere with miRNA function, other mechanisms can affect their regulatory action on target molecules: one example is represented by the evidence that mRNAs can present or develop specific alterations to escape miRNA control (2).


1. Berezikov E. Evolution of microRNA diversity and regulation in animals. Nat Rev Genet. 2011;12:846–860. Published 2011 Nov 18. doi:10.1038/nrg3079.
    2. Iorio MV, Croce CM. microRNA involvement in human cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2012;33:1126–1133. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgs140.
      3. Iorio MV, Croce CM. MicroRNA dysregulation in cancer: diagnostics, monitoring and therapeutics. A comprehensive review [published correction appears in EMBO Mol Med. 2017 Jun;9(6):852]. EMBO Mol Med. 2012;4:143–159. doi:10.1002/emmm.201100209.
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