The recent clinical successes of immune checkpoint inhibitors, including ipilimumab (targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated protein 4), nivolumab, and pembrolizumab (targeting the programmed death- 1 pathways), for treatment of melanoma and non–small cell lung cancer establish immunotherapy as tangible therapeutic approaches.121–125 A major issue to be resolved is to determine if myeloid-based therapeutics will be efficacious as monotherapies or will instead require combination with standard-of-care cytotoxics or checkpoint inhibitors. This endeavor will reveal which scenario results in durable long-term responses that will significantly improve the lives of patients with cancer over the available therapeutic options.
The authors thank members of the Coussens laboratory for critical insight and discussions and all authors contributing to studies discussed herein but not mentioned because of space consideration.
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