Review ArticlesOverview of Lung Cancer ImmunotherapySanmamed, Miguel F. MD, PhD∗,†,‡,§; Eguren-Santamaria, Iñaki MD∗; Schalper, Kurt A. MD, PhD∥Author Information From the ∗Program of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research †Oncology Department, Clinic University of Navarra ‡Navarra Institute for Health Research (IDISNA), Pamplona §Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Madrid, Spain ∥Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. M.F.S. is supported by a Miguel Servet contract from Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Fondo de Investigacion Sanitaria (Spain). I.E.-S. is supported by an AECC Clinical Junior grant. ISCIII MS17/00196, ISCIII PI19/00668, AECC CLJUN20011, NIH grants R03CA219603, R37CA245154, Yale SPORE in Lung Cancer (P50CA196530), Stand Up To Cancer–American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Dream Team Translational Research Grants SU2C-AACR-DT1715, and SU2C-AACR-DT22-17 supported this study. Reprints: Miguel F. Sanmamed, MD, PhD, Center for Applied Medical Research, Avenida de Pio XII, 55, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. E-mail: [email protected]. The Cancer Journal: 11/12 2020 - Volume 26 - Issue 6 - p 473-484 doi: 10.1097/PPO.0000000000000488 Buy Metrics Abstract Anti–PD-(L)1 therapy represents a turning point in lung cancer immunotherapy, moving from previously ineffective enhancer strategies to immune checkpoints as standard first- and second-line therapies. This unprecedented success highlights the importance of mechanisms to escape immune attack, such PD-1/PD-L1 axis, and emphasize the importance to better understand the tumor immune microenvironment. Analyzing the specifics of immune response against lung tumor cells and how malignant cells progressively adapt to this pressure may help to understand which are the key aspects to guide the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here we review the past and present of clinical lung cancer immunotherapy and give a perspective for the future development based on emerging biological insights. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.