Refractory and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and T-lineage leukemia have poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Adoptive cellular immunotherapies are emerging as an effective treatment for patients with chemotherapy refractory hematological malignancies. Indeed, the use of unselected donor lymphocyte infusions has demonstrated successes in treating patients with AML and T-lineage leukemia post–allogeneic transplantation. The development of ex vivo manipulation techniques such as genetic modification or selection and expansion of individual cellular components has permitted the clinical translation of a wide range of promising cellular therapies for AML and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here, we will review clinical studies to date using adoptive cell therapy approaches and outline the major challenges limiting the development of safe and effective cell therapies for both types of acute leukemia.
From the Center for Cell and Gene Therapy at Baylor College of Medicine; Houston Methodist Hospital; and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.
Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: P.D.L. has no conflicts of interest relevant to this work. M.M. and M.K.B. have patent applications in the field of adoptive cell therapy of cancer. M.K.B. is an equity holder or SAB member of companies (Tessa, Marker Therapeutics, Allogen, Unum) who are developing cellular therapies for cancer, but not for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Support was provided by NIH SPORE in Lymphoma 5P50CA126752, LLS SCOR award, LLS Rising Tide Fund, Evans MDS Discovery Research Grant, LLS Translational Research Project grant and CPRIT Award RP150611.
Reprints: Maksim Mamonkin, PhD, and Premal D. Lulla, MD, Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, 1102 Bates Ave (Feigin Center), Suite 1770.6, Houston, TX 77030. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.