Review ArticlesThe Pancreatic Cancer MicroenvironmentDougan, Stephanie K. PhDAuthor Information From the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA. Conflicts of Interest and Sources of Funding: Funding was provided by the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, the Pew Charitable Trusts, the Harvard-MIT Bridge Project, and the Richard and Susan Smith Family Foundation. The author has disclosed that she has no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Reprints: Stephanie K. Dougan, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave, Smith 770A, Boston, MA 02215. E-mail: Stephanie_Dougan@dfci.harvard.edu. The Cancer Journal: November/December 2017 - Volume 23 - Issue 6 - p 321-325 doi: 10.1097/PPO.0000000000000288 Buy Metrics Abstract Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is composed of a minority of malignant cells within a microenvironment of extracellular matrix, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Therapeutic failures of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy have all been attributed to the PDAC microenvironment. In this review, we dissect the components of the microenvironment and explain how each cell type contributes to form a highly immunosuppressive, hypoxic, and desmoplastic cancer. New efforts in single-cell profiling will enable a better understanding of the composition of the microenvironment in primary and metastatic PDAC, as well as an understanding of how the microenvironment may respond to novel therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.