ReviewSpecial Review Caught in the Crosshairs Targeted Drugs and Personalized MedicineFerreira, Bibiana I. PhD*; Hill, Richard PhD*†‡; Link, Wolfgang PhD*†Author Information Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal; and †Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal; and ‡Cellular and Molecular Neuro-oncology Research Group, Brain Tumour Research Centre, School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom. Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Reprints: Wolfgang Link, PhD, Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, Bldg 8, Room 2.22, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal. E-mail: [email protected]. Bibiana I. Ferreira and Richard Hill contributed equally to this work. The Cancer Journal: November/December 2015 - Volume 21 - Issue 6 - p 441-447 doi: 10.1097/PPO.0000000000000161 Buy Metrics Abstract All drugs have molecular targets; however, this does not mean that they are targeted therapeutics. Only by the interaction with a disease-specific molecule can the drug be classified as a targeted therapeutic. This is often not clearly defined and might refer to several different therapeutic modalities such as genomically targeted therapy, immune checkpoint therapy, or pharmacokinetic targeting. To develop a precise concept of targeted therapy, it is crucial to understand how drugs were discovered and how our rapidly expanding knowledge concerning disease mechanism is driving a fundamental conceptual change in modern drug discovery and development. In combination with the increasingly detailed analysis of disease at an individual patient level, we believe that it is very timely to consider the past and current approaches involved in the development of new medicines and to discuss the paradigm shift in and basic concepts associated with targeted therapies and personalized medicine. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.