From the ∗Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
†Edward P. Lawrence Center for Quality and Safety, Massachusetts General Hospital
‡Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital
§Department of Pathology, Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
∥Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California
¶Controlled Risk Insurance Company, Risk Management Foundation of the Harvard Medical Institutions Inc, Boston, Massachusetts
∗∗Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
††Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
‡‡Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital
§§Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Correspondence: Rajshri Gartland, MD, MPH, 55 Fruit St, GRB-425, Boston, MA 02114 (e-mail: [email protected]).
*L.C.M. and R.M.G. were funded by the Harvard Medical School Fellowship in Patient Safety and Quality. J.B.I. was funded by the National Institutes of Health (IL30-CA209256-01). The authors disclose no conflict of interest.
R.M.G. and L.C.M. are co-first authors.
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