Organizational culture change has been recognized as one of the promising ways to reduce error and increase safety. However, it is still unclear what factors support health care teams implementing interventions aimed to influence the cultural attributes that bolster continuous quality improvement. This study aimed to identify factors related to teams' adoption of the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program
(CUSP), an approach to improving patient safety culture
among intensive care units (ICUs) participating in a bloodstream infection reduction collaborative.
We analyzed data from the 103 ICUs participating in the Keystone ICU project. We conducted logistic regressions to assess baseline factors associated with ICU teams’ use of CUSP. Predictors included safety climate scales (teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition, perceptions of management, and working conditions) as measured by the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, central line-associated bloodstream infection rates, bloodstream infection prevention intervention phase, ICU type, hospital bed size, and hospital teaching status.
Intensive care units with lower perceived safety climate, greater stress recognition, higher perceptions of management, and better working conditions were more likely to adopt CUSP. Intensive care units that implemented the infection prevention interventions late were less likely to adopt CUSP. Mixed ICUs and ICUs in large hospitals were also less likely to use CUSP.
Staff-perceived safety climate, ICU type, and hospital size were related to ICUs’ implementation of CUSP. Better baseline safety climate or lower perceived organizational support reduced uptake. The findings can help hospital leaders and collaborative experts identify units that are less likely to implement cultural interventions.