Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

To Ask or Not to Ask?: The Results of a Formative Assessment of a Video Empowering Patients to Ask Their Health Care Providers to Perform Hand Hygiene

Garcia-Williams, Amanda MPH; Brinsley-Rainisch, Kristin MPH; Schillie, Sarah MD, MPH, MBA; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda MPH

Journal of Patient Safety: June 2010 - Volume 6 - Issue 2 - p 80-85
doi: 10.1097/PTS.0b013e3181cb43c9
Original Articles

Objectives: To formatively evaluate the Hand Hygiene Saves Lives video and explore the perceptions and expectations of health care providers and laypersons regarding hand hygiene (HH), health care-associated infections, and patient empowerment using the Health Belief Model as a framework.

Methods: Four focus groups were conducted in February 2008 among laypersons (n = 18) and health care providers (n = 17). Qualitative data were coded for themes, and quantitative Likert scales ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very) were analyzed using SPSS.

Results: Health care-associated infections were perceived to be somewhat common (mean, 3.4) and HH as very important (mean, 4.9). Laypersons reported being significantly more likely to ask their nurses (2.5 versus 4.3; P = 0.001) and physicians (3.3 versus 4.3; P = 0.010) to perform HH after viewing the video. The video's target audience was perceived to be families (42.0%) or patients (39.1%) and the message to be the importance of HH (45.5%) or creating comfort about asking (24.2%).

Conclusions: Empowering patients using tools such as a video may be an important patient safety advance to improve HH in health care settings and prevent health care-associated infections.

From the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia.

Correspondence: Ronda L. Sinkowitz-Cochran, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, 1600 Clifton Road MS A-31, Atlanta, GA 30333 (e-mail:

The authors have no relevant financial interest in this article.

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.