Original ArticlesThe Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 Developing an Error Reporting System to Improve Patient SafetyRiley, William PhD*; Liang, Bryan A. MD, PhD, JD†‡§∥; Rutherford, William MD∥; Hamman, William MD, PhD∥¶Author Information From the *Division of Health Services Research and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; †San Diego Center for Patient Safety, ‡Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla; §Institute of Health Law Studies, California Western School of Law, San Diego, California; ∥College of Aviation, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan; and ¶United Airlines, Chicago, Illinois. Correspondence: William Riley, PhD, Associate Dean, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Ave, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (e-mail: [email protected]). Journal of Patient Safety: March 2008 - Volume 4 - Issue 1 - p 13-17 doi: 10.1097/PTS.0b013e31816154b5 Buy Metrics Abstract The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement (PSQI) Act enacted in July 2005 constitutes the basis for significant opportunity to improve patient safety in the health care system by creating a voluntary error reporting system. The PSQI Act creates an unprecedented opening to prospectively prevent injury through analysis of mistakes and close calls that have been voluntarily reported by providers and ensures legal protection for providers who report information about errors and injury to a Patient Safety Organization. This paper provides an overview of the main features of the PSQI legislation, describes essential components of a national patient safety reporting system, discusses what events to report, and identifies what lessons can be learned from aviation safety reporting systems. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.