Information for Authors : Journal of Trauma Nursing | JTN

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Journal Logo

Information for Authors


Table of Contents​

​​Journal Description​

Overview Chart

Formatting Directions​

Article Layouts​

Manuscript Preparation​

Publication Phases​

Editorial Policies​

Journal Descri​​ption​

The Journal of Trauma Nursing (JTN) is the official journal of and is owend by the Society of Trauma Nurses (STN). Started in 1995, JTN is an international, multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed, bi-monthly journal that publishes original articles advancing trauma care across the trauma continuum globally. 

To deliver the highest-quality evidence to trauma teams globally.
To be a global leader in advancing trauma center care. ​

1. Advance new trauma knowledge
2. Appraise, synthesize, and challenge current trauma knowledge
3. Disseminate injury prevention and quality improvement 
4. Communicate​ trauma center best practices ​​and innovations


JTN publishes original contemporary trauma center content from prehospital to rehabilitation. Topics include clinical, trauma center leadership-organization-management, trauma registry, performance improvement, injury prevention, education, training, outreach, health policy, trauma disparities, and trauma systems. 

 Audience The JTN audience includes all trauma center disciplines, departments, settings, and trauma center levels.  

 Impact Factor: 1.0 Clarivate Analytics 2022 ©Journal Citation Reports 

Peer Review Model: Double anonymized (author & reviewer identities concealed from each other)

Acceptance Rate: 45%

 ​Manuscript Are Evaluated On

1. Relevance: Is the article relevant to c​ontemporary trauma care?
2. Originality: Is the article original, interesting, or innovative? 
3. Context: Is the article framed in the context of current, high-quality literature?
4. Advancement: Does the article add, extend, or challenge what is already known?
5. Credibility: Are the article design, analysis, and conclusions aligned, reliable, and valid? 
6. Writing: Does the writing communicate concisely, with clarity, flow, and impact?

Overvie​​w Chart

Original Research



Innovations ​

​Short preliminary research reports of works-in-progress with small numbers needing further study. 
Systematic search- critical assessment of research studies addressing a specific PICO question.​​​A study of an improvement initiative. They report data with outcome results reported over time as run or control charts (min 6-12 months data preferred) or use o​​ther advanced study designs.​​​​Concise literature review with defined search strategy on a narrow trauma topic where current literature is either outdated, contradictory, evolving, or uncertain.​​Narrative description of a trauma center initiative. They are not designed to answer questions, and DO NOT report data or the effect of an intervention on outcomes. ​Report of a single patient highlighting unique issues. The report should provide distinct educational value or focus on the need to change practice.​
Author Limit









Patient Permission
Word Count


Reference Limit
Abstract Word Count
Reporting Guidelines at EQUATOR NETWORK








Title includes study type
NASystematic ReviewNAConcise ReviewN/A
Case Report

​Abstract Main Headings
Case Presentation Conclusion

Main Text Headings

Key Points
Key Points
Key Points
Key Points
Key Points
Key Points
Key Points
Case Presentation
Key Points

Formatting Directions

Format per APA 7th Edition.

JTN Author Instructions take precedence (where differences exist) over APA format, exemplar articles, reviewer suggestions, and author preference.

  • ​Use 12 pt Times New Roman, with one-inch margins and right margin unjustified (ragged).
  • Double-space and indent all paragraphs (.05 inch) except in Abstract.
  • Use one space after a period that ends a sentence (single sentence spacing).
  • Center, bold and capitalize main text headings.
  • ​Number pages in top right corner starting with abstract as page one.
  • Do not insert line numbering.
  • Define abbreviations on first use. 
  • Do not start sentences with an abbreviation or number. 
  • Avoid acronyms of your topic or limit to one per manuscript. 
  • Do not embed tables and figures within the text (production staff determines placement). 
  • Include figure and table callouts within the text, e.g. (see Figure 1)  
  • Submit manuscript and tables in Word, not PDF. 
  • Submit figures as Word, PowerPoint, TIFF, or JPEG. 
  • Mask author and institution names (use dark highlighting) on any page after the title page. 
  • Submit the cover letter and title pages separately from the manuscript file.
  • Indicate artificial intelligence (AI) use in the acknowledgment section of the title page. 
  • Submit ORCID numbers for all co-authors on the title page. Authors can register at ​
  • Submit an IRB letter with manuscript when submitting research or quality improvement articles. 
  • Submit patient permission with case reports unless a composite case report is used. 
  • Submit manuscripts online at

    Article Layout

    • Titles should be concisem specific, informative and limited to 12 major (>3 letter) words. 
    • Place the title's key topic early (first half) to enhance search engine optimization. 
    • Place the study type at (title end) for qualitative, systematic review, concise review, and case reports.
    • Qualitative improvement article titles should indicate an initiative to improve care (in some way).
    • Do not include trauma center level, or country name unless specific to the study aim. 
      Do not use declarative titles (indicating results), or titles stated as questions.
    • Do not include abbreviations, qualitative quotes, or cutesy jargon.
    • Provide a clear, concise, and complete informative summary of what was done and found; limit 250 words. 
    • No citations or abbreviations. 
    • Use JTN structured abstract headings, left-aligned, bold, and capitalized, each on a new line.
    ​State the problem, its significance, and the gap you are addressing.
    The gap is the study rationale answering “why the study was even needed.”
    Suggested length: 2 sentences

    The objective is a concise statement outlining the study’s specific goal or purpose.
    It may be worded as “This study aims to” “The study purpose is” “The study’s objective is”
    The objective is typically expressed as [verb → intervention → outcome → population]
    Example: “This study aims to assess the impact of private patient rooms on CLABSI in trauma patients.”
    Suggested length: 1 sentence

    Begin with study design statement: E.g., “This is a single center, retrospective cohort study…”
    Briefly include applicable elements of PICOTSS (in any order): 
    Population, Intervention, Comparisons (if applicable), Outcomes, Timing (study dates), Setting, Statistical approach (only if novel or unusual)
    Suggested length: 3-5 sentences

    Begin with total # of study participants N=x
    Followed by # in each group n (%)
    Then key characteristics n (%), M (SD), or Mdn (IQR)
    List key outcomes in the order described in the methods       
    Report key outcomes (point estimate, 95% CI, p) never p values alone
    Suggested length: 3-5 sentences.

    Start with “We found,” “Our findings suggest,” “Our study demonstrates”
    State findings, be brief, avoid redundancy.
    Suggested length: 1-2 sentences

    State 5-7 keywords (words or phrases used to search for your topic)  
    Select relevant terms so other authors can find your article
    Use Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms National Library of Medicine indexes articles for PubMed.

    ​Research and Quality Improvement (QI) Articles


    Main Text

    1. Focus the background in 3 paragraphs:
  1. ProblemState the problem and its significance. What is the scope, nature or magnitude of the problem? Hook the reader. Why should they care?
  2. Gap. Describe what is currently known, what remains unknown, or controversial (gap) about the topic. Cite select references (do not review exhaustively). The gap should answer why was this study even needed? 
  3. Plan. Describe your plan to adeess the gap. What intervention may work? Explain what the present study adds or extends to what is already known. What is unique about your study.
  4. Optional Paragraph. Describe supporting theory, framework, or model (as appropriate).
    • The suggested length of the background section is 3-4 paragraphs, limit of 2 pages.


    • The objective should match the objective stated in the abstract.
    • The objective is a concise statement outlining the study’s specific goal or purpose.
    • It may be worded as “This study aims to” “The study purpose is” “The study’s objective is”
    • The objective is typically expressed as [verb → intervention → outcome → population]
    • Example: “This study aims to assess the impact of private patient rooms on CLABSI in trauma patients.”
    • Suggested length: 1 sentence


    • Use passive voice to describe the methods (what was done is more important than who did it).
    • Insert subheadings pertinent to your study to guide the reader through the material. Consider using:
    Study Design
      • Start with a study design statement. E.g., “This a single center, retrospective, cohort study.”
      • State the ethics or institutional review board (IRB) status. 
      • Include the name of the institution(s) granting the IRB and IRB approval number. 
      • State the reporting guideline followed. Include the guideline name witrh citation and reference.
    Population and Setting
      • Describe the study population inclusion-exclusion criteria, recruitment strategy, or sampling method.
      • Describe the setting location with enough detail to provide the reader context. Rather than naming the hospital, please describe the trauma center type, level, and geographic location, which is more meaningful to a global audience. For example “admissions to an urban, academic, 900  bed Midwestern U.S. adult Level I trauma center with an annual trauma admission volume of 2,000 per year.”  
      • Include the study dates (month, year to month, year). 
    Data Collection
      • Provide the data source of the data (registry, electronic medical record, observation). 
      • Describe the data collection techniques.
      • Define the dependent and independent variables. How were they assessed and measured? 
      • Describe instruments, scales and scores used (dedicate one paragraph per instrument or score). 
      • Provide an overview of the instrument, how it is scored, and how scores are interpreted. 
      • Describe the established reliability and validity of the instrument and provide original references.
      • Describe the intervention succinctly but with enough detail that it can be replicated.
      • Describe the (program, procedure, protocol, etc.) and delivery method.
      • Consider including a Figure with a graphic depiction of intervention.
      • Describe how subjects were grouped during the intervention.
      • Describe who delivered the intervention, their education, training, and fidelity to study processes.
      • Describe any masking procedures used, including whether participants, those administering the intervention or those assessing the outcomes were masked (blinded) to the study condition.
    Statistical Analysis 
      • Describe statistical tests used by data type (continuous vs. categorical, normal vs non-normally distributed data).
      • Include sample size calculations and power analysis (as appropriate).
      • State the significance level used to interpret the data.
      • State the statistical software used, with the version, (company, city, state, or country). 
      • See also (Manuscript Preparation, Statistical Analysis Paragraph, including examples)​
      • Suggested methods section total length: 1-3 pages.
    • State results numerically and narratively (without interpretation) in logical order and complexity.
      • Present results of the entire population first, then subgroup analyses
      • ​Present overall demographic results before proceeding to univariate and multivariate analyses.
    • Begin the total number of study participants (N=x) and the number n (%) in each group.
    • Describe participant key demographic or characteristics with descriptive statistics.
    • Report key outcomes in consistent order as presented in the methods section. 
    • Report secondary analysis, subgroup, or sensitivity analysis. 
    • Describe missing data (amounts and pattern). 
    • Present results using text, tables, and figures.
    • Use the format that most concisely and clearly presents the information.
    • Highlight findings from tables and figures, avoid repeating lines of results in narrative.
    • Use figures to emphasize key relationships.
    • Consider a figure (flow diagram) with the number of patients included-excluded at each step.
    • See also (Manuscript Preparation, Statistics section)
    • Suggested results section length: 1-3 paragraphs (dependent on study). 
    • Focus the discussion in 3 paragraphs:
    1. Key Results. Begin with “This study showed...”, “We found...”, or "Our study demonstrates..." etc. Discuss and emphasize the study’s take-home message(s). Do not overstate findings, avoid use of “statistically significant.” Emphasize new and important findings or aspects of the study. 
    2. Contextualize Results. Place your findings into context with pertinent literature. Explain how your results refute, contrast, validate, or add to previous work.
    3. Practice Implications. Discuss implications for practice. 
  • Suggested discussion section length: 3-4 paragraphs (dependent on study).

    • Insert a limitation heading (centered, capitalized, and bold)
    • Thoughtfully address all study limitations. Highlight any efforts to mitigate. 
    • Suggested limitations section length: 1 paragraph.
    • Begin with a brief restatement of the key finding “We found..." "Our study shows...”
      Avoid redundancy.
      Include suggestions for future research with thoughtful, specific next steps to advance the topic.
      Suggested conclusion section length: 1 paragraph (brief).



    Qualitative Research

    • Include a concise description of the topic. Identify the study as qualitative or indicating the approach (e.g., ethnography, grounded theory) or data collection methods (e.g., interview, focus group) is recommended. Limit 12 words.
    Main Text

    • Describe the problem or phenomenon and its significance; review relevant theory and empirical work
    • State a brief one sentence objective that matches the one in the abstract. “This study aims to…”
    • Group material under relevant subheadings to guide the reader through the material.
    • Describe the study design indicating the approach (ethnography, grounded theory, case study, phenomenology, narrative research), guiding theory and rationale, if appropriate.
    • Describe the researcher's characteristics and reflexivity.
    • Describe the setting, site, and salient contextual factors.
    • Describe the sampling strategy, recruitment, and selection.
    • Describe the ethical issues pertaining to human subjects.
    • Describe the data collection methods, data collection instruments, and units of study.
    • Describe the data processing, data analysis, and techniques to enhance trustworthiness.

    Describe the synthesis and interpretation of findings. 

    Describe the links to empirical data.

    • Provide a short summary of main findings; explain how findings and conclusions connect to, support, elaborate on, or challenge conclusions of earlier work; discuss scope and generalizability; identify unique contribution(s) to the literature. 
    • Discuss the trustworthiness and limitation of the findings.




    Survey Research

    Which Article Type Should a Survey Article be Submitted Under?
    • A survey study can be qualitative or quantitative. 
    • For questionnaires with answer options using a scale, submit as quantitative research.
    • For studies with questions requiring detailed narrative responses, submit as qualitative research. 
    • Mixed-method studies should be submitted as quantitative research. 
    • Contact the Editor if you have questions.
    • Include the word “survey” in the title (recommended). Title limit: 12 words. 
    Main Text 

    • State the problem and its significance. Raise awareness of the topic's importance. Hook the reader; why should they care? Provide context using select citations (do not review the subject exhaustively).
    • Describe what is currently known, what remains unknown, or controversial about the topic. Clearly state the research gap (scientific rationale) i.e. Why was this study even needed? 
    • Describe possible interventions, connect the gap. What intervention may work?
    • The suggested length of the background section is 3-4 paragraphs, limit of 1 ½-2 pages.
    • State the objective the same way as stated in the abstract. “This study aims to…”
    • Incorporate pertinent subheadings to guide the reader through the material. Consider:
    Survey Type and Population
    • Describe the survey type and population being studied. 
      • Describe the survey population being studied.
      • Describe the survey type (exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory)
      • Describe survey timing (cross-sectional, longitudinal, or cohort)
      • Describe the survey mode (phone, mail, face-to-face, or online) and data collection time-period.
    • State the institutional review board (IRB) status, name of granting institution, and IRB number.
    • State the reporting guideline used with reference. [CHERRIES or CROSS at EQUATOR, or JTN Survey Guideline]
    Survey Tool or Questionnaire
    • Describe the survey tool, including the total number and type of questions and scoring procedure.
    • For existing surveys:
      • Describe the survey's validity and reliability, and provide original references.
      • Do not include a copy of previously published survey tools; provide the original references. 
    • For new surveys:
      • Describe the survey question development (literature, focus groups, interviews, experts)
      • Describe the determination of validity (face, content, criterion, construct)
      • Describe the determination of reliability (interrater, test-retest, alternate, internal)
      • Include the survey questions as a Figure or Supplemental Digital Content
    Survey Administration
    • Describe the sampling method (convenience, purposive, snowball, random, systematic, stratified, cluster)  
    • Describe the sample recruitment strategies (advertising, incentives, anonymity, confidentiality)
    • Describe the survey administration (type, number of contacts, attempts, time intervals between, and management of duplicate surveys)
    Statistical Analysis 
    • Describe the statistical methods with enough detail to replicate the analysis. 
    • Explain how missing data or participants lost to follow-up were addressed. 
    • Specify the significance level used to interpret the data. 
    • Specify the statistical software program used (name, version, city, state, or country) 
    • Begin with a total number of surveys sent, completion & response rates with numerators and denominators 
    • Report the total number of individuals completing the survey at each study stage (include a flow diagram
    • Address partial versus complete survey question answers and how they counted in the results
    • Present full data (response to each question) in a figure or as Supplemental Digital Content.
    • Describe nonresponders and possible reasons for nonresponse
    • Describe missing data (amounts and pattern), any loss to follow-up for longitudinal surveys
    • Begin with a brief restatement of key findings
    • Provide insights (interpret) on how your results refute, contrast, validate, or extend previous work.
    • Discuss the practical application (implications) of your work.
    • List 3-4 limitations that threaten study validity & highlight any efforts to mitigate
    • Consider measurement error, selection bias, nonresponse bias, attrition bias, & response bias 
    • The conclusion should be one brief paragraph. Briefly restate primary conclusions and make suggestions for future research.

    Survey Research Exemplar Studies:
    Haider, A. H., Schneider, E. B., Sriram, N., Dossick, D. S., Scott, V. K., Swoboda, S. M., Losonczy, L., Haut, E. R., Efron, D. T., Pronovost, P. J., Lipsett, P. A., Cornwell, E. E., 3rd, MacKenzie, E. J., Cooper, L. A., & Freischlag, J. A. (2015). Unconscious race and social class bias among acute care surgical clinicians and clinical treatment decisions. JAMA Surg, 150(5), 457-464.​

    Concise Review

    Concise reviews are literature reviews with defined search strategies or topics of interest to trauma center personnel. They can be a topic where real-world practice and the current literature is either outdated, contradictory, evolving, or uncertain. Presubmission approval of the topic with the editor is encouraged. Limit to 3000 words, 40 references, 5 tables or figures, 250-word abstract, 3-5 Key Points. 

    • The title should include “concise review.” Limit 12 words. 
      • Data Sources
      • Study Selection
      • Data Extraction
      • Data Synthesis
      • Key Themes 
    Main Text
    • Briefly describe the problem and significance 
    • What is currently known and not known about the problem (the gap)
    • Total of 2-3 paragraphs maximum
    • State in one sentence. “To provide a concise review of.”
    • Data Sources
    • Study Selection 
    • Data Extraction
    • Data Synthesis
    • Use subheadings to group information into logical themes as needed
    • Use subheadings to group information into logical themes as needed
    • Briefly restate the project aim and key findings. “This concise review of (X topic) found…”
    Concise Review Exemplar Article:  


    Innovation articles describe practical initiatives addressing real-world trauma center problems. They are not designed to answer questions and do not report data or discuss effect of an intervention on outcomes. They simply narratively describe a project. Innovation articles should provide updated current content to warrant publication. Innovation articles do not require IRB and are limited to 3000 words, 40 references, and five figures and tables. 

    • Titles should be as concise as possible, specific, and informative. Limit: 12 words.
    Main Text 

    • Briefly describe the problem and its significance in 2-3 paragraphs. Why did you start the project?  What is known, and what remains unknown about the issue? Cite select studies only. What gap are you addressing?
    • State a brief, one sentence objective that matches the one in the abstract. “This study aims to…”
    • Group material logically under relevant subheadings as needed.
    • Describe the dates of the project, the population, and the setting location with enough detail to provide the reader context. Rather than naming the hospital, please describe the context with trauma center type, level, and geographic location, which is more meaningful to a global audience. Example “admissions to an urban, academic, Midwestern U.S. Level I adult trauma center”  
    • Briefly describe the steps of the project. Provide a clear overview of what was done but balance detail with brevity. Consider figures and tables as appropriate depicting key project material like tools, protocols, forms, or checklists.
    • Narratively describe the project implementation: successes and barriers. 
    • Discuss the implications for practice. What does this project add? Place your work within the context of similar literature. How does your project compare or contrast? Describe efforts to sustain the project’s impact over time. Is the project generalizable to other centers? 
    • A single brief paragraph that recaps the project and considers the next steps or attempts to extend the project to other areas or populations. 


    Innovations Exemplar Articles:
    • Sharrah, M. L., & Bechtel, K. E. (2022). Mapping Injury Prevention with Microsoft Excel. J Trauma Nurs, 29(2), 92-96. 
    Case Report
    A case report describes a patients hospitalization, highlighting a unique problem. Case reports should contribute knowledge, have educational value, or highlight the need to change practice. Case reports do not require IRB but do require patient ​permission to be submitted with the manuscript. Alternatively, JTN accepts composite case reports that merge a series of similar patients into one case by drawing clinical material from each and blending the material to create a coherent narrative using deidentified demographic details. Case reports are limited to 2,000 words, 25 references, and up to 3 figures or tables. Adhere to CARE or SCARE reporting guidelines, and submit the completed reporting guideline with the article.
    • Include “case report” in the title. Limit 12 words.
    Abstract Headings:
    • State the problem and significance that this case will address.
    • Provide a brief overview of the patient's case. 
    • What is the main “take-away” lesson? 
    • Include 5-7 keywords that identify the main topic, and include case report as a keyword.

    Main Text Headings:

    • Maximum of two to three paragraphs that briefly describe the problem and significance. What does this case provide that is different or important from what is already known?
    • Acknowledge and cite relevant reporting guideline at the end of the background section. E.g., “This case report complies with CARE guideline (include citation).”
    • The case presentation is a multiple-paragraph narrative in order of the patient’s continuum of care.
    • Describe pertinent prehospital demographics, mechanism of injury, mode of arrival, and triage activation.
    • Describe center arrival patient vital signs, symptoms, patient history, and physical examination.
    • Describe clinical findings, injuries, injury severity, pertinent labs, imaging, diagnostic challenges, procedures, surgery, and outcomes. Include complications, adverse or unanticipated events, and hospital disposition.
    • Consider including a figure of a timeline of key events. Include tables and figures to highlight information.
    • Discuss the strengths and limitations of the case report. Discuss and compare to relevant literature.
    • Include the primary take-away lessons with rationale. Where appropriate, include the patient or family perspective. Indicate informed consent (patient permission) or, if a composite case report, state, "This case report is a composite of elements from different patients from the author's experience.”

    Case Report Exemplar Articles:

    Manuscript Preparation

    • Use abbreviations sparingly and only if commonly known to trauma clinicians, like ED, ICU, OR, ISS, LOS, MOI, and repeated at least four times. 
    • Define upon first use. 
    • Do not use abbreviations in titles, and avoid use in the abstract.
    • Do not begin a sentence with an abbreviation (reword or spell out).
    • Avoid using acronyms (abbreviations of phrases) created to fit your topic, e.g., trauma triage response nurse (TTRN). The space they save does not justify the frustration they cause readers having to memorize. If an acronym significantly adds clarity and ease of reading, one acronym will be allowed per manuscript. 
    • Do not use periods in abbreviations (except U.S.).
    • Spell out the United States when used as a noun or location (e.g. “In the United States, …)
    • Abbreviate U.S. when used as an adjective (e.g. “The U.S. census bureau reports...”)
    • List acknowledgments on the Title Page to recognize those who helped with the article but who do not meet authorship criteria. (See also Title Page). ​
    APA Format

    • ​Cite and reference all apps. See the Reference section.
    • ​See masking (previously known as blinding).
    Per ICMJE guidelines, to be eligible for authorship, all authors must meet four criteria:
    1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
    2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
    3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
    4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work, ensuring that questions related to the accuracy, integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

    ​Artificial Intelligence (e.g. Chat GPT)
    • ​​Report artificial intelligence use under Acknowledgments on the Title page.
    • Briefly describe how AI was used in the manuscript.
    • State the AI software name, version, extension numbers, manufacturer, and location.
    • This requirement does not apply to grammar checking or spelling software.
    • Do not list artificial intelligence as an author.
    • Do not cite and reference artificial intelligence software. (See also Software)​​
    Bias Reduction
    • Follow these general principles for writing about all people and their personal characteristics without bias.

    • See Masking

    • ​Every table and figure should be referred to within the text by its corresponding number in the order of appearance. E.g., “As shown in Table 1; Figure 2 shows.; (see Figure 1).​

    • APA is a “down style,” meaning that words are lowercase unless otherwise noted. 
    • Racial and ethnic groups: Black, Hispanic, White
    • Tests or scales: Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale
    • Nouns followed by numbers or letters: Figure 3, Days 7-9, Part A
    • Trauma center level with roman number:  Level I, Level II, or Level III trauma center.
    • Proper nouns (names of people, places, things, organizations, and groups) such as John Brill Company, Golden Gate Bridge, Northern California, Supreme Court, Ford F-150, Atlantic Ocean, Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Green Bay Packers, Democrats
    • Titles preceding a name: I worked for President Taft.” Not: William Taft was president. 
    • Directions used to describe sections of the country, but not compass directions. Example: The Jones moved to the Southwest. Jim’s house is two miles north of Dayton.
    • Days of the week, months of the year, and holidays, but not seasons. Examples: Halloween, October, Friday, winter, spring, and fall.
    DO NOT capitalize:
    • Hospital departments, floors, or units
    • Titles or positions: respiratory therapist, nurse, surgeon
    • Diagnosis: diabetes, subdural hematoma
    • Procedures: intramedullary nailing, exploratory laparotomy
    • Treatments or protocols: massive blood transfusion protocol
    • Names of methods, models, frameworks, or theories (except for proper nouns)
    • Sentence case: Capitalize the first letter of the first word of a sentence.
    • Title case: Capitalize the first letter of each word in a sentence except minor words (less than four letters, e.g. at, in or, the, and. E.g. The Lord of the Flies.)​
    • Use causal language (terms such as effect and efficacy) only for randomized clinical trials (RCT). For all other study designs, methods and results should be described in terms of association or correlation and should avoid cause-and-effect wording.
    ​Chapt GPT
    ​See Artificial Intelligence
    ​See also Grammar Checking; and Manuscript Check
    • Use APA 7th edition citation format. 
    • Cite primary sources (original research). Avoid secondary sources (general review articles, magazine articles, textbooks, websites, etc.). 
    • Limit the number of citations to 3 or fewer to support a point. 
    • Cite the most current, high-quality, peer-reviewed literature. 
    • Roughly 80% of all cited references should be from peer-reviewed primary literature from the preceding 3–5 years. Exception: topics with minimal literature support.
    • Include seminal (landmark) works as appropriate. 
    • Ensure all citations are in the reference list (and vice versa). 
    • List citations alphabetically separated by semicolons. 
    • Avoid stating the author's name at the start and end of the sentence, E.g., ‘Smith & colleagues studied a similar database using crash scene data (Smith et al., 2020).’, instead use parenthetical citations (end of a sentence), which is preferred for concise writing.

    APA 7th Ed Citation Format​ ​ ​
    # Authors Narrative Citation
    Beginning or Within Sentence
    Parenthetical Citation
    Mid or End of Sentence
    1 authorLuna (2020)(Luna, 2020)
    2 authorsLuna and Chin (2020)(Luna & Chin, 2020)
    >=3 authors
    Martin et al. (2020)(Martin et al., 2020)

        1st citation

    American Trauma Society (ATS, 2020)

    (American Trauma Society [ATS], 2020)

    ​2nd citation
    ​ATS (2020)
    (ATS, 2020)

    • Avoid excessive or inappropriate self-citation or citation among author groups which can be considered a form of misconduct called citation manipulation. 
    • JTN follows COPE guidance on citation manipulation.​
    ​Clinical Trials
    • ​See also: Trial Registration and Preregistration Requirements.

    • Color will be used in the online journa​l format but not in print. 
    ​Conference Presentations
    • JTN publishes previously presented conference abstracts, but authors should inform the Editor in the cover letter and on the title page of the article submission. Indicate the conference name, date, location, and abstract citation (if previously published), so there is no confusion, as plagiarism detection software will pick up previously published material. ​
    Conflicts of
    Interest Disclosure
    • Authors must provide a conflict-of-interest statement upon article submission.
    • List all authors' conflicts of interest on the title page, including financial, consultant, institutional, and other relationships that might lead to bias or a conflict of interest. 
    • If there is no conflict of interest, this should be explicitly stated. (See also Title Page; ‘Conflict of Interest’ in the Editorial Policies section).
    • Use consistent terminology; once a term is used, do not change it. E.g., If you start with advanced practitioner, do not later switch to midlevel practitioner.
    • Order
    • Report comparison group results in consistent order. 
    • E.g., Always report the experimental group first compared to the control group result, or always report the postimplementation result first compared to the preimplementation results (or vice versa), but stay consistent.
    Continuing Education Credits [Nurs Continuing Professional Dev]
    • Nursing Continuing Professional Development (NCPD) uses an outcomes-based performance on posttest questions - CE model. 
    • Two articles are selected per Journal issue to provide NCPD credits for nurses.
    • Article types favored for NCPD selection include:
      • research, systematic reviews, quality improvement, concise reviews, and articles that include figures, lists, sidebars, charts, and tables
    Copyright Symbol
    • Copyright or trademark symbols are not used in academic papers.
    ​Copyright Transfer Agreement (CTA) Forms
    • All authors must submit a signed copyright transfer agreement form before articles can be accepted for publication.
    • The forms are automatically emailed to each author upon article submission.​
    Cover Letter
    • Include a brief cover letter to the editor that includes the following:
    • Confirm that the manuscript has been submitted solely to JTN and no other journal.
    • Confirm that it has not been previously published.
    • Confirm that authors are responsible for all aspects of the research and writing process, including taking final responsibility for all aspects of the paper.
    • Indicate if the manuscript material was previously presented at a conference.
    • State if the submission has been deposited as a preprint.
    • Provide the preprint server name and DOI number. 
    • Notify if there is any significant overlap with previously published work and explain.​
    Data Timeliness
    • Research should be timely and based on data collected as recently as possible. 
    • The final data collection date should be no more than five years before manuscript submission. 
    • Survey data should be current within the most recent three years. 
    • Manuscripts in which data are more than five years old will receive lower priority.
    • JTN does not publish articles promoting company devices. 
    • Rather than emphasizing a specific device, the article should address the generic device category. 
    • Example, rather than stating, "Evaluation of Chrisofix Chest Orthosis in Rib Fractures," state "Evaluation of Chest Orthosis in Rib Fractures."
    • Company devices should be identified only once-upon first mention. 
    • State device name (model or version number, company name, city, state, or country).
    • Do not cite and reference devices.
    • Do not include trademark or copyright symbols in the text.

    • State drug names using generic names expressed in lowercase. 
    • State the brand name once only, upon first use, E.g., furosemide (Lasix). 
    • After that, use generic name only.​

    • Manuscripts will undergo editing during the review and production stages. 
    • Editing includes (grammar, punctuation, spelling, and terminology) checks and organization (rephrasing and restructuring) to conform to the JTN formatting.​

    • ​Use either American or British English, but do not mix the two.​
    • ​​See Institutional Review Board​









    Figures Purpose
    • Figures include graphs, charts, drawings, maps, plots, and images (photographs).
    • Figures highlight data patterns and show comparisons better than tables.
    • Figures should be self-explanatory and supplement, not duplicate, the text.
    • Limit the total number of figures and tables to 5.
    • Submit extra figures as Supplemental Digital Content.
    • See also (Flow Diagram)
    Figures Placement
    • Do not embed figures within the text (the publishing staff determines this).
    • Submit figures in WORD, PowerPoint, TIFF, or JPEG format with at least 300 PPI. 
    • Place each figure on a separate page.
    • Group all figures in a separate file called Figures and place them in the main manuscript at the end, following the tables.
    Figure Titles
    • Number all figures even when there is only one.
    • Cite each figure within the text in the order first mentioned.
    • Ensure that there is a corresponding callout within the text for each figure.
    • Label each figure with a concise, descriptive title (limit 12 words).
    Figure Components
    • Label each axis on a statistical graph with units of measurement
    • Increase white space by removing background lines and shading
    • Place items that are to be compared next to each other in similar size or scale
    • Submit multi-part figures parts (A, B, C) (limit four parts) as one figure
    • Define all symbols, indicators, line styles, and abbreviations in the Note beneath, even if previously defined in the text
    • Ensure copyright attribution to all or parts of a figure being reprinted or adapted and submit a copy of the written permission with the manuscript
    • For additional instructions, see 5 Steps to Creating Digital Artwork.

    • Submit manuscript text and tables in MS Word ONLY (.doc or .docx file)
    • Submit figures in MS Word, PowerPoint, TIFF, or JPG file format with a minimum of 300 dpi
    • Do not submit PDFs or spreadsheets​
    ​Flow Diagram
    • Flow diagrams are figures showing the number of patients included-excluded at each step. 
    • The flow diagram is often Figure 1 of a manuscript.
    • Create the flow diagram in Word or PowerPoint or adapt the example templates shown here
    Font & Typeface

    • Use 12 pt Times New Roman

    • See Overview Chart Formatting DirectionsFormat papers using APA 7th Edition. 
    • Where differences exist, JTN Author Instructions take precedence over APA format, exemplar articles, reviewer suggestions, and author preference. 
    • Use 12 pt Times New Roman, with one-inch margins, right margin unjustified (ragged).
    • Double-space and indent all paragraphs (.05 inch) except in Abstract. 
    • Use one space after periods. 
    • Center, bold, and capitalize main headings. 
    • Number pages in the top right corner starting with Abstract as page one. 
    • Express p values in lowercase italics without hyphen or leading zero (p = .03), limit 2-3 spaces
    • Word count includes abstract and text but excludes references, tables, and figures. 
    • Do not insert line numbering. 
    • Avoid abbreviations unless common to readers like (ED, ICU, LOS) and used at least 4 times. 
    • Do not start sentences with an abbreviation or number; define abbreviations on first use. 
    • Avoid acronyms of your topic or limit to one per manuscript. 
    • Do not embed tables and figures within the text.
    • Include callouts, e.g. (see Figure 1), to each figure and table within the text.
    • Submit manuscript and tables in MS Word, not PDF. 
    • Submit figures as Word, PowerPoint, TIFF, or JPEG. 
    • Mask (dark highlighting) author and institution names on pages after the title page. 
    • Submit the cover letter and title page separately from the manuscript file.
    • Indicate artificial intelligence (AI) technology use (i.e., Chat GPT) in the acknowledgment section of the title page. 
    ​Gap Statement
    • The gap statement highlights an existing knowledge gap or deficiency in the literature related to the topic. It identifies a specific area where further research is needed to address unanswered questions, unresolved issues, or gaps in understanding.


    • Gap statements are often signaled by the words [yet, but, however]

    Example Gap Statements:

    • “Yet, limited research has been conducted on...”

    • “Yet, previous studies have focused only on adult trauma, leaving a gap in our understanding of the effects on the pediatric trauma population.”

    • “But, despite extensive research in the field, little is known about...”

    • “Yet previous studies were limited to single-center studies”

    • “However, there is a lack of evidence regarding...”

    • “Yet, no studies to date have examined the relationship between X and Y.”

    • “However, existing literature does not adequately address the issue of...”

    • “Yet, previous research has not sufficiently explored the impact of...”

    • “Yet, previous research is limited by weak study designs with low participant numbers”

    • “However, while some studies have investigated X, there is a dearth of research on...”

    • “Yet, further investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying...

    • “But the current literature lacks a comprehensive analysis of...”


    • ​See International
    ​Grammar Checking

    Use  grammar-checking software before article submission to help identify and correct simple grammar and punctuation errors. 

    Heading Levels
    • Level 1. All caps, bold, centered. 
    • Level 2. Title case, bold, flush left. 
    • Level 3. Title case, bold, flush left, in italics.
    • JTN Primary Headings: 
    • JTN Subheadings: 
      • JTN encourages the use of subheadings to group material logically
      • Use succinct, short, clear subheadings expressed as level 2 and 3 headings.
    Naming and Context
    • State the hospital name only once in the manuscript in the IRB statement. 

    • Describe the trauma center type, level, and geographic region to provide context, rather than naming the hospital. Providing context is more meaningful to a global audience. 

    • Describe geographic regions as West, Midwest, Northeast, Southwest, and Southeast. 
    • Express trauma center level as “Level I-V” (capitalize the L and use Roman numerals)
    • Example: "“…admissions to an urban, academic, Midwestern U.S. Level I trauma center”
    • Additional context to consider includes bed size, annual admission volume, etc.
    • Include pertinent information that adds context to your article topic
    • E.g., In an article on trauma activations, consider including the number of first and second-tier Activations the center receives monthly or annually. 
    • E. g., In an article on severe TBI, consider including the total number of Head AIS > 3 injuries the center admits annually. 


    • Inclusive language acknowledges diversity and conveys respect to all people.
    • Use person-first language when referring to conditions, disease, disabilities, and abilities (e.g., use patients with diabetes rather than diabetics, use patients with alcohol use disorder rather than alcoholics, use patients with TBI rather than TBI’s). 
    • Use sex-neutral terms (clinicians, participants, providers, patients), avoid he/she 
    • Report sex or gender for all study outcomes. 
    • Report race & ethnicity with other sociodemographic factors; avoid biological explanations for disparities. Recognize the intersectionality of factors associated with disparities. 
    • Identify participant race and ethnicity classifications used, how they were determined, and by whom in the Methods Section.
    • List race and ethnicity categories in alphabetical order instead of by prevalence, but list “other” and “unknown” last
    • Use person-first language, race, and ethnicity should be used as modifiers (e.g., Asian patients; White populations), not nouns (e.g., Asians; Whites)
    • Compound racial and ethnic terms should not be hyphenated (e.g., Asian American)
    • Use person-first language when referring to conditions, diseases, disabilities, and abilities (e.g., “patients with diabetes” is preferred to “diabetics”).

    Terms to AvoidSuggested Alternative
    AddictPerson with a substance use disorder
    Committed suicideDied by suicide
    Elderly, seniors, agedOlder adults
    Hearing impairedDeaf, people with hearing loss
    HomelessPerson without housing
    Hispanic, Latin, LatinxUse the term the study population uses.
    IndigenousIndigenous people, Indigenous nation
    GenderUse gender for identity or psychosocial/cultural factors
    Mentally challengedPerson living with a disability
    Mentally illPerson living with a mental illness
    Minority, MinoritiesIt should not be used as a noun but with another descriptor (e.g., racial, and ethnic minority groups").
    Mixed raceAvoid unless this term was used in data collection; multiracial or multiethnic is preferred.
    Non-WhiteSpecific groups should be indicated.
    OtherState why “other" was used (e.g., numbers in some categories were too small for meaningful comparative analysis)
    Poor peopleLow-income
    Pregnant women,Pregnant patients
    Race/ethnicityExpress as “race and ethnicity."
    SexUse sex for biological factors.
    Special needsPerson with a disability
    SurvivorPerson who has experienced trauma
    UnderservedRefers to health disparities among groups
    UnderrepresentedRefers to a disproportionately low number of individuals in a program
    VictimAvoid describing patients as victims or terms implying helplessness. Person who has experienced xxx
    • Journal of Trauma Nursing is indexed in CINAHL, International Nursing Index, and
    • Academic OneFile, EBSCO A-Z, EMBASE, Ex Libris, HINARI, Journal Guide, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PubMed, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Social Sciences.​
    • The editor welcomes author inquiries.
    • Send to Judy Mikhail, PhD, MBA, RN, Editor-in-Chief at [email protected].
    • JTN is an international scholarly journal that features articles using current, global trauma literature relevant to high-functioning trauma centers. 
    • Authors should explain policies, practices, and terms specific to a particular country and make efforts to enhance the paper's relevance to an international trauma audience. 
    • The literature review, discussion, interpretation, and comparison of findings should include relevant global references.​
    Review Board

    • ​Human subject studies (research and quality improvement) require an institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee statement in the article that includes: the full name of the institution granting the approval and the IRB number.
    • It is not the author’s or other entities’ decision to determine the need for an IRB. 
    • It is a requirement to publish in JTN
    • The IRB determination must come from the institution’s regulatory committee designated to review and monitor human subject’s research. 
    • Place the IRB statement in the Study Design paragraph at the start of the Methods section. 
    • Submit the IRB letter to Editorial Manager when submitting the article. The IRB letter is kept separate from the manuscript when being sent for peer review to protect author anonymity.

    Key Points
    • List 3-5 bullet points that capture the key, novel aspects of your study.  What did your study contribute to the literature? The bulleted points will be displayed in a callout box within the article for impact.
      • State what is currentl​y known about the problem
      • State the gap
      • State the study's key findings
      • State the points concisely (max 100 characters each)
      • Points may be stated as sentence fragments or phrases  
      • Place Key Points on its own page, following the references.
    • List 5 to 7 keywords or phrases that best describe or capture the manuscript's content. 
    • Keywords are the terms people would use to search for your study or similar studies on the same topic.
    • Only include abbreviations that are firmly established in the field, e.g. (ATLS, SBIRT, PTSD), but in addition, also spell out the terms.
    • Review similar articles to identify commonly used keywords. 
    • Consider keywords from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) suggested by the National Library of Medicine to index PubMed.
    • List the keywords at the bottom of the abstract, in alphabetical order, in title case, separated by commas, North American spelling preferred.
    Language Editing Services
    • JTN requires that manuscripts meet the basic standards of the English language. 
    • Use either American or British English, but do not mix them.
    • In partnership with Editage, WoltersKluwer offers language editing services for a cost to non-native English speakers to help prepare manuscripts. There are also many language editing services available on the internet.

    • Manuscript length or (word count) includes the abstract and main text and excludes the cover letter, title page, references, tables, and figures. 
    • Accepted length varies by article type. (See Overview Chart).

    • Lists are used to draw attention when displayingthree or more items separated by commas, semicolons, letters, and numbers: 
    Lettered List 
    • Use lowercase letters in parentheses for lists that are phrases. 
    • E.g., Patients are listed by (a) family income, (b) education level, and (c) household income 
    Numbered List 

    Use a numbered list to display sentences in a series: 

           1. How are psychologists trained to be culturally competent?
           2. How are training outcomes assessed?
           3. When are the outcomes assessed?

    ​Manuscript Check

    • Before submitting, we recommend you run the manuscript through the PaperPal Preflight service, which instantly checks your manuscript and helps you address the most common errors and omissions before submitting your manuscript to JTN
    ​Manuscript Order
    Abstract -new page
    Manuscript Sections (1-7) Continuously Connected:

            1.   BACKGROUND 
            2.   OBJECTIVE
            3.   METHODS
            4.   RESULTS
            5.   DISCUSSION
            6.   LIMITATIONS 
            7.   CONCLUSIONS

            8.   REFERENCES -new page
            9.   Key Points -new page
            10. Tables -new page each
            11. Figures -new page each
            12. Supplemental Digital Content -new page each​

    • Use one-inch margins on all sides.
    • Align the left margin evenly using justified margins.
    • Align the right margin unevenly (jagged) using unjustified margins.
    ​Masking (formerly known as blinding)

    • Conceal (with dark highlighting) any mention of authors or institutions after the title page, including in the methods, IRB statement, or those attached to tools, surveys, etc. 
    • Submit the cover letter and title page separately from the manuscript file; they are kept separate from the manuscript and not sent to the reviewers to ensure author anonymity. 
    • Please note that articles previously displayed as prepints preclude (masking), negating the ability to provide double anonymous peer review.
    ​Missing Data
    • Articles should address missing data.
    • Describe the amount and pattern of missingness and how it was dealt with statistically. 
    • Missing data were considered missing randomly, ranging from 1.7% for systolic blood pressure to 11.2% for insurance status.
    • Multiple imputations addressed the missing data with five iterations.
    • Continuous variables were standardized using Z-score standardization before imputation.
    • Use commas in numbers of 1,000 or more
    • Do not start a sentence with a numeral; spell out or reword the sentence
    • Insert a space between the number and unit of measurement, E.g., (4.5 m). 
    • Do not insert a space between number and percent (3%) or number and currency ($3).
    • Express numbers as words for numbers and below.
    • Express numbers as numerals for numbers 10 and above. 
    • E.g., “The study included 55 patients, and five patients died.” 
    Express in number formats:
    • Preceding a unit of measurement:

             ​E.g., "2 mgs of morphine," "…with 3.5 cm of"

    • Math expression:

             E.g., "divided by 5", "3 times as," "more than 5%,” "0.33 of." 

    • Representing time, dates, ages, scores, or points on a scale:

             E.g., “12:30 a.m., 3 days, 2-year-olds, ages 5-25 years, 4 on a 7-point scale.”

    Hyphen Use
    • Use hyphens to express compound numbers: E.g., “twenty-one.”
    • Use hyphens with numbers when used as a compound adjective describing a noun: 
    • E.g., “Nurses work 12-hour shifts,” “he gave a 5-mg dose.”
    • Do not repeat measurement units when expressing a range: E.g. (90-100 mmHg) or multiple amounts, E.g., 0.3, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/dl.
    • Do repeat the % symbol when reporting a range of percentages: E.g., 18%-20%
    (Also known as Aim or Purpose)

    ​The study objective is a concise one sentence statement outlining the study's specific goal (purpose) (what the study intends to achieve).

    The objective is typically expressed as verb → intervention → outcome  → population.

    • Verb [assess, analyze, compare, describe, determine, evaluate, examine, identify] 

    • Intervention, Program, Initiative

    • Outcome [complication, mortality, QoL, LOS, time to intervention, guideline adherence]

    • Population

    • Setting (optional)

    Example objectives:

    • To determine the association between obesity and infectious complications in adult trauma patients.

    • To examine a nurse-driven protocol to identify, assess, and treat patients with head injury on anticoagulation on time to physician evaluation, head CT, and anticoagulation reversal.

    • To evaluate the effect of an EMR computerized screening tool on identifying trauma patients at risk for substance abuse.

    • To assess the Matter of Balance program on fall risk in community-dwelling older persons.

    • To investigate the effectiveness of a multicomponent delirium prevention protocol on pain, functional status, sleep quality, and delirium in older patients with hip fractures.

    • To compare nursing workload characteristics between trauma and nontrauma nursing units.

    • To investigate social media usage on adolescents' mental health and well-being.

    • To explore the relationship between nurse satisfaction and hospital Magnet status.

    • To determine the effect of an early mobility program on trauma patient ICU LOS.

    • To examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in reducing stress levels among trauma nurses.

    • To assess the impact of a concussion screening tool on concussion screening adherence.

    • To evaluate the effect of a mandatory electronic medical record tool on SBIRT screening compliance in adolescent trauma patients.

    • To determine whether mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase smoking cessation in people who smoke and want to quit.

    • List all author ORCID numbers on the Title page.
    • ORICID is a numerical identifier (e.g., 0000-0001-6479-5330) assigned to each author for a lifetime that distinguishes authors from one another with similar names or name changes. 
    • JTN request that all authors submit their ORCID number upon manuscript submission. 
    • Authors can add their ORCID to their Editorial Manager account. Log into Editorial Manager, select ‘Update My Information,’ ‘Personal Information,’ enter ORCID ID and submit. ​
    Order and Spraration of Manuscript Pages
    Abstract -new page

    Manuscript Sections (1-7) Continuously Connected

    1.   BACKGROUND 
    2.   OBJECTIVE
    3.   METHODS
    4.   RESULTS

    8.   REFERENCES -new page
    9.   Key Points -new page
    10. Tables -new page each
    11. Figures -new page each
    12. Supplemental Digital Content -new page each
    ​Page Count
    • ​See Word Count.​

    Page Numbers
    • ​Insert page numbers in the header, top right, starting with Abstract as page 1.​​
    Paperpal Preflight
    • Paperpal Preflight is a service that instantly checks your manuscript for common errors and omissions allowing you to correct them before you submit your manuscript.
    • Preflight helps authors correct technical issues and improve language quality.
    • We encourage authors to use the service before submitting their manuscript. 
    • JTN PaperPal Preflight Link

    • ​Indent all paragraphs (tab 0.5) except in the abstract.
    • Center each paragraph around one main idea or a single topic.
    • Aim for 3-6 sentences per paragraph or 2-3 paragraphs per double-spaced page. 

    • ​Indent all paragraphs (tab 0.5) except in the abstract. 
    • Center each paragraph around one main idea or a single topic. 
    • Aim for 3-6 sentences per paragraph or 2-3 paragraphs per double-spaced page. ​

    • ​Paraphrase and cite relevant, timely, primary research to support claims. 
    • Paraphrasing restates another's idea (or your own prior published idea) in your own words.
    • Paraphrasing provides credit to the source with a citation and reference. 
    • Cite the paraphrased work on first mention. Once cited, it is unnecessary to repeat the citation for every sentence if the writing clarifies that the same work continues to be paraphrased. If paraphrasing continues into a new paragraph, reintroduce the citation. 
    • Cite rather than quote. Quotes are rarely used in academic writing.​

    • ​De-identify all patient information in the manuscript, including figures and tables, to avoid compromising patient privacy and confidentiality.
    • Only those details essential for understanding and interpreting a specific case report or case series should be provided.
    • ​Permission is required to use copyrighted material from sources (including the Web). 
    • The author is responsible for providing written permission for figures or tables borrowed, modified, or adapted from copyrighted materials (including the author's own previous work). 
    • Submit a copy of the written permission with the manuscript.​​

    • ​See Voice

    Personal Communications
    • ​Personal communications include emails, text messages, online chats, personal interviews, telephone conversations, listserv discussion groups, or bulletin boards.
    • Cite personal communications in the text but do not include them in the reference list.
    • Include the author's first initials, last name, personal communication, month, date, and year—E.g., (B. Smith, personal communication, April 29, 2022).
    • ​Photographs of identifiable persons, whether patients or staff, must be accompanied by signed releases, such as the following: "I hereby give [author's name] permission to use the photograph of [subject's name] in the Journal of Trauma Nursing.


    • P=patient, population, participant
    • I=intervention, program, initiative
    • C=comparison (if applicable)
    • O=outcome​
    • ​All manuscripts undergo a review with plagiarism-detection software before acceptance.
    • Paraphrase (restate in your own words) and cite original authors to give credit to prevent plagiarism. This includes your own previously published work to avoid self-plagiarism.
    • Check your manuscript before you submit using commercially available software programs. Search for plagiarism checker software for examples.​

    • ​Colon. Use colons to elaborate “Carl is talented: he plays violin and banjo.” Use colons to introduce a list, “I have three brothers: David, Kent, and Jacob,” but not for lists already introduced by verbs or prepositions (like, or such as).
    • Comma. Use commas to separate ideas within a sentence.
    • En Dash. Used to show a range (Jan–Feb) or (1–100).
    • Em Dash. Longer dash is used to separate or amplify. “The baby—without any help—got up.”  
    • En Dash. Use en (short) dash in ranges 2-5%, and compound adjectives “blue-green algae.” 
    • Find dashes in MS Word at [insert → symbols → more symbols → special characters] 
    • Hyphen. Use hyphens sparingly and only as suggested by APA and Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary. Avoid MS Word or Grammarly’s auto-suggested hyphen use. When in doubt, express the word without a hyphen.  
    • Prefixes & Suffixes. Express words formed with prefixes and suffixes as one word. E.g., preexisting, pretest, posttest, pre- and postintervention groups, pregroup, postgroup, preexperimental, postexperimental. Exceptions: cross-sectional, meta-analysis, one-group pretest-posttest design, quasi-experimental.
    • Italics. Use italics to emphasize a word, do not use quotation marks
    • Period. Use one space after the period at the end of a sentence.
    • Semicolon. Use semicolons to separate lengthy lists, between related but distinct thoughts, or between independent clauses joined by: (besides, finally, however, indeed, then, or therefore). “Patients read the page; however, they struggled with recall.”
    • Slash. Avoid slash signs (/) in formal writing (except in equations); instead, reword as “or.”​
    • Use advanced practitioners rather than midlevel practitioners
    • Use a description of the hospital rather than the hospital name, e.g., “...admissions from an urban, academic, 600 bed, Midwestern U.S. Level I trauma center.” 
    • Use emergency department rather than emergency room
    • Use evidence-based rather than evidenced-based
    • Use health care rather than healthcare or health-care
    • Use Level I-V [capital L, roman numeral] trauma center rather than: level one or level 1
    • Use motor vehicle crash, collision, or road traffic injuries rather than accident
    • Use older persons rather than the elderly. 

    • ​Quotes are rarely used in academic writing. Paraphrase and cite rather than quote.​​

    ​Race and
    Ethnic Identity
    • ​Define the source of the race and ethnicity classifications used (e.g., self-report or selection, investigator observed, database, electronic health record, survey instrument). 
    • Report specific racial and ethnic categories rather than collective terms when possible.
    • Define groups labeled as "other."
    • List categories in alphabetical order in text and tables. 
    • Use caution reporting race and ethnicity in isolation without including other acknowledged factors contributing to health, such as poverty level, single-headed household, school funding, neighborhood segregation, socioeconomic status, etc.


    ​How Current
    • Roughly 80% of cited references should be from the preceding 3–5 years.
    • Exceptions include seminal landmark works.
    • If little has been written on the topic, it is appropriate to cite older literature.

      What Type?
    • Include global primary source(original research articles) only.
    • Avoid secondary sources like, books, general review articles, websites, magazine articles.

    • Place the reference list on a new page, following the end of the main text.
    • List references alphabetically by first author's last name (do not number the references)
    • Double-space & use hanging indents (first line, flush left, with subsequent lines indented).
    • Express the article title in sentence case.
    • Express journal names in italics, in title case, in the abbreviated format as listed in Pub Med.
    • Include the URL and or DOI using the format 

      Government Websites
    • List the most specific agency as the author (when there are multiple government agencies). List the larger agency as the publisher when it appears on the webpage only.
    • Use the most specific date that is available.
    • Use n.d. for date and include a retrieval date when citing work from a continuously updated website, and versions are not archived by date.
    • Express the title of the work in Italics, in sentence case.

      Multiple Authors
    • References with 2-20 authors, use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name.
    • For references with > 21 authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis “…"  and add the final author's name.

      Large Group Authors

    If authorship is attributed to a group (either solely or in addition to one or more individual authors), all group members must meet the full criteria and requirements for authorship, and all group member authors must complete copyright transfer agreements.

    List the individual names first, followed by “& the members of xx group" or “on behalf of the members of XX group." 

    Example: Deeken, F., Sánchez, A., Rapp, M. A., Denkinger, M., Brefka, S., Spank, J., Bruns, C., von Arnim, C. A. F., & The PAWEL Study Group. (2021). Outcomes of a Delirium Prevention Program in Older Persons After Elective Surgery: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Surgery, e216370-e216370.

    For articles with many authors that will not fit in the byline of a print or PDF version, a group byline will be used with the individual names of each author listed at the end of the article. All author names will be individually indexed, displayed, and easily searchable in bibliographic records such as PubMed.


    Preprint citations should include the author's name(s), title, preprint server, the Preprint ['tag,' the document version (e.g., most recent date modified), the date the preprint was cited, and the Digital Object Identifier (DOI).


    State the app owner as the “author," and use the version date as the “publication date."

    Example: Author rightsholder last name, first initial. (Year). App title (Version #) [Mobile app]. Publisher/App Store. URL


    All publicly available data used in the writing of an article should be cited in the text and reference list, whether they are data generated by the authors or other researchers.

    Data citations include the author(s), title, data repository, the document version (e.g., most recent date modified), and the Digital Object Identifier (DOI).


    See: Quick Reference Guide, APA Style 7th Edition.



    Journal Article

    Cahill, A., Pearcy, C., Agrawal, V., Sladek, P., & Truitt, M. S. (2017). Delirium in the ICU: What about the floor? J Trauma Nurs, 24(4), 242-244.

    Journal Article in a Language Other Than English

    Hora, E. C., & Sousa, R. M. C. (2009). Adaptação transcultural do instrumento family needs questionnaire [Cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument “Family Needs Questionnaire"]. Revista Latino Americana de Enfermagem17, 541–547.

    Preprint Article

    Fan, G., Liu, H., Yang, S., Luo, L., Wang, L., (2021). Discharge prediction of mechanically ventilated patients with spinal cord injury: A machine learning study with 1185 cases. MedRxiv, 2022.2006.2026.21259569. [Preprint]. August 04, 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 15]


    Li, G., & Baker, S. P. (Eds.). (2012). Injury Research: Theories, Methods, and Approaches. Springer.

    Edited Book Chapter

    Otto, M. W., Smits, J. A. J., Fitzgerald, H. E., Powers, M. B., & Baird, S. O. (2019). Anxiety sensitivity and your clinical practice. In J. A. J. Smits, M. W. Otto, M. B. Powers, & S. O. Baird (Eds.), The clinician's guide to anxiety sensitivity treatment and assessment (pp. 179–193). Elsevier Academic Press.


    National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. National violent death reporting system. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, GA. Accessed Month DD, YYYY.


    Wang G, Zhu Z, Cui S, Wang J. 2017. Data from: Glucocorticoid induces incoordination between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the amygdala. Dryad Digital Repository.


    Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Existential. In dictionary. Retrieved October 15, 2020, from

    Government Report

    Maurer, M., Dardess, P., Carman, K. L., Frazier, K., & Smeeding, L. (2012). Guide to patient and family engagement: Environmental scan report (Publication No. 12-0042-EF). American Institutes for Research, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

    National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. (1979). The Belmont report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Water-related diseases and contaminants in public water systems. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.). Health care access and quality. Healthy People 2030. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2017, September 15). Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    International Society for Technology in Education. (n.d.). ISTE standards for students.


    AllTrails. (2019). AllTrails: Hike, bike, and run (10.4.2) [Mobile app]. App Store. 

    See APA common reference examples guide.

    • JTN endorses the use of Reporting Guidelines.
    • Reporting guidelines help ensure standards of quality reporting. 
    • Follow the reporting guideline that most closely matches your study design. 
    • Not all manuscripts will have a corresponding guideline. 
    • Submit the completed guideline with the manuscript. This means you insert the page number to the right of each item, where the item can be found in your manuscript. 
    • Acknowledge the use of the reporting guideline with citation in the Study Design paragraph of the Methods section. E.g., “This study was approved by the University of X Institutional Review Board, number #, and followed the STROBE reporting guideline (vonElm, 2007).”
    See for a complete list of reporting guidelines.
    • Clinical Practice Guidelines use AGREE 
    • Case Report use CARE
    • Cost-Effectiveness use CHEERS
    • Randomized Control Trials use CONSORT
    • Protocol for Clinical Trials use SPIRIT
    • Meta-analysis Observational studies use MOOSE
    • Systematic Reviews use PRISMA 
    • Systematic Review Protocols use PRISMA-P
    • Meta-Analysis use MOOSE
    • Scoping Reviews use PRISMA ScR
    • Statistics Reporting use SAMPL
    • Quality Improvement use SQUIRE2.0
    • Educational Improvement use SQUIRE-EDU
    • Qualitative Studies use SRQR or COREQ
    • Diagnostic - Prognostic Studies use STARD
    • Implementation - StaRI
    • Observational Studies use STROBE. Find STROBE checklist here
    • Reporting of Interventions use TIDieR
    • Non-Randomized Studies use TREND
    • Integrative Reviews use Whittemore & Knafl (2005) J Adv Nur, 52(5):546 
    • Survey Research use CHERRIES, CROSS, or JTN Survey Design Reporting Guideline
    ​​Running Head

    • ​​Insert a running head (abbreviated title) in a max of 5 words in capital letters, left aligned in the header so that it appears on every page.
    • Do not list the full title and author names on any page other than the title page.​
    ​Sample Size

    • ​Small sample sizes preclude certain statistical methods, corrupt validity, and invite rejection.
    • Sample size and statistical methods should be ascertained before the study is performed.

    Sentence Case
    • ​Sentence case capitalizes the first letter of the first word of a sentence.​​
    ​Sex and Gender
    • Use the term sex when reporting biological factors
    • Use the term gender when reporting gender identity or psychosocial or cultural factors.
    • Define the method used to obtain this information (self-reported, investigator observed or classified, or laboratory test).
    • Report all main outcomes by sex (or gender, if appropriate).
    • Do not cite & reference common software such as MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Adobe.
    • Do cite (in the text only) survey and statistical software such as Qualtrics, Survey Monkey, RedCap, R, SAS, SPSS, STATA, etc.).
    • Upon the first mention in the text, list the software abbreviated name, version and company location. 
    • Do not include company trademark or copyright symbols.E.g., “Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, Version 30 (IBM, Armonk, NY)."

    • Double-space the paper, references, and Notes under tables and figures. 
    • Include only one space after periods at the end of a sentence. 
    • Do not add blank lines before or after headings or between paragraphs.
    • Space before and after elements ( - ,  + ,  < ,  >  =) and most statistical symbols (M = x.x) except % and $ (2.3%, $25).

    ​Statistical Significance Level
    • ​Research and QI studies should report the alpha level defining statistical significance in the statistical analysis paragraph:  Examples: “The significance level for this study was set at p < .05”. “Statistical significance was defined as a p < .05”​
    ​Statistical Software
    • ​Statistical software examples include Qualtrics, R, REDCAP, SAS, SPSS, STATA, etc.
    • Specify the software used in the statistical analysis paragraph of the methods section.
    • Do not cite and reference software.
    • State the software name and version (company, location).
    • E.g., “Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, Version 27 (IBM, Armonk, NY).
    • Common software names and locations (version numbers vary):
    • REDCap, version 7.0 (Vanderbilt, Nashville, TN)
    • R, version 1.2 (R Corp Team, Vienna, Austria)
    • SPSS, version 27 (IBM, Armonk, NY)
    • SAS, version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC)
    • Stata, version 16.1 (StataCorp, College Station, TX)​

    ​Statistical Analysis Paragraph

    • ​Place the statistical analysis paragraph as the last paragraph of the Methods section.
    • Describe the statistics used by the type of data reported:
      • Normally distributed vs. nonnormally distributed
      • Continuous vs. categorical
      • Make clear the statistical tests used for each type of data reported
    • Include a statistical significance sentence
    • List the statistical software used (name, version, company location)

      Example Statistical Analysis Paragraphs

      Example 1 (research study)
      Patient characteristics were described using frequencies and percentages for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables. Univariate analysis was performed using Chi-square tests for categorical variables, and Mann-Whitney U tests for continuous variables. Variables were considered significant at p < .05. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA, version 16.3 (StataCorp, College Station, TX).

      Example 2 (QI Study)
      Outcomes were plotted over time to study the impact of our screening intervention. Data were available for 12 months before and 15 months after the intervention, for a total of 27 months of data. Run charts were developed to display the effect of the screening process changes over time on the previously mentioned measures. Each data point represented the total percentage of study subjects undergoing the intervention during the respective time periods. In all analyses, p < .05 was considered statistically significant. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 30 (IBM, Armonk, NY).
             ​General Principles for Reporting Statistics
    • Data is pleural, express as “data were."
    • Include sufficient information to allow readers to understand the analyses.
    • Make clear the statistical tests used for each type of data reported.
    • State that data conformed to the assumptions of the test used to analyze them.
    • State whether tests were one- or two-tailed (two-tailed most common).
    • Report group results in consistent order (e.g., experimental relative to control).
    • Report percent change when possible which is more meaningful than actual values.
      Formula: Percent change = (final value – initial value) / Initial value*100.

      Abbreviations and Symbols
    • Express the value as lowercase, italicized, without a hyphen.
    • Use lowercase to express terms: t test, p value.
    • Statistical symbols, M, SD, Mdn, IQR, CI, etc., do not have to be italicized or defined.
    • Use the population symbol uppercase (N) for the total number in a sample
    • Use the sample symbol lowercase (n) for the number in each subgroup of the full sample
    • Use the narrative statistical term in the text, for example (mean), but use the symbol (M = 2.4) when combined with a number in a sentence.
    • Insert spaces before and after symbols like (-,+,<,>,=). Example (M = x.x), except for % and $ (2.3%, $25).
    • Repeat the symbol when reporting a range of percentages or money; 18%-20%, $50-$100
    • Use brackets to enclose confidence intervals separated by a comma; 95% CI [3.45, 2.7]
    • State ratios without an equal sign (OR 2.81, 95% CI [2.08, 3.78], p <.001)
    • Use semicolons and brackets as needed to separate different statistics in a sentence.

      Decimal Places
    • Round for simplicity and comprehension; when in doubt, round to 2 places.
    • Round age to the nearest year
    • Express descriptive statistics (%, M (SD), Mdn (IQR)) to one decimal place
    • Express most other statistics to two decimal places
    • Express exact values to two or three decimal places

      Leading Zero
    • Place a zero before the decimal point for MOST statistics except values

    • Report the total sample size, followed by group sizes. E.g., A total of N=150 patients were studied, of which 90 (60%) were in the pretest group versus 60 (40%) in the posttest group.
    • Express percentages as n (%), making the numerator and denominator readily apparent to the reader. E.g., Of 255 frail patients, 179 (70.2%) were women.
    • Denominators of 30 or fewer report as frequencies (not percentages). E.g., instead of stating, “of 15 patients studied, 26.67% presented with fever," state, “Four of 15 patients presented with fever."

      Percentage Change
    • Percentage Change = [(New Value – Old Value) / Old Value] * 100%.
    • New Value is the value after the change. Old Value is the value before the change.
    • It can be used to express both increases and decreases.

      Measures of Central Tendency and Spread
    • Report mean (standard deviation) for normally distributed data, NOT Standard Error (SE)
    • Express as (M = 19.2, SD = 3.5) or M (SD) = 19.2 (3.5)
    • DO NOT express SD as +/- or + (avoid due transposing risk during publication process)
    • Report median (interquartile range) for non-normally distributed data, NOT range
    • Express as Mdn = 5.6, IQR = (3.8-7.2) or Mdn (IQR) = 5.6 (3.8-7.2)
    • Express confidence intervals as (95 %CI [lower limit, upper limit]; (95% CI, 1.31,13.52)

      p Value
    • Express exact p values unless the is less than .001, then express as (p < .001).
    • Express p values to 2 or 3 decimal places without leading zero; e.g. (= .014)
    • Express value as lowercase, italicized p without a hyphen
    • In tables, express the p value column heading simply as a lowercase p
    • Do not report p values in isolation, as they fail to convey effect size and importance
    • Report as (point estimate, CI, p), E.g. (OR 0.8, 95% CI [0.22,1.86], p = .13).
    • Do not describe values slightly over .05 as trending, marginally significant, etc.

      Power Analysis
    • Required when using inferential statistics to test a hypothesis.

      Example Reporting of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
    • A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that the effect of leadership style was significant for employee engagement, F (2, 78) = 4.58, p = .013.
    • A two-way ANOVA revealed there was not a statistically significant interaction between the effects of watering frequency and sunlight exposure (F (3, 32) = 1.242, p = .311)
    • We found a statistically significant main effect of age group on social media use, F(3, 117) = 3.19, p = .026.

      Example Reporting of Chi-Square Test

      Goodness of Fit Test:
    • Based on a chi-square test of goodness of fit, Χ2(4) = 11.34, p = .023, the sample's distribution of religious affiliations matched that of the populations.

      Chi-Square Test of Independence:
    • A chi-square test of independence revealed a significant association between gender and product preference, Χ2(8) = 19.7, p = .012.

      Example Reporting of Correlation
    • A Pearson correlation coefficient was computed to assess the linear relationship between advertising spend and total revenue. There was a positive correlation between the two variables, r(13) = .71, p = .003.
    • A Spearman's rank correlation was computed to assess the relationship between points scored and rebounds collected. There was a negative correlation between the two variables, r(48) = -.27, p = .026.
    • SAT scores predicted college GPA, R2 = .34, F(1, 416) = 6.71, p = .009.

      Example Reporting of Regression
    • A simple linear regression was used to test if hours studied significantly predicted exam score. The fitted regression model was: Exam score = 67.1617 + 5.2503*(hours studied). The overall regression was statistically significant (R2 = .73, F(1, 18) = 47.99, p < .000). It was found that hours studied significantly predicted exam score (β = 5.2503, p < .000).
    • A multiple linear regression was used to test if hours studied and prep exams taken significantly predicted exam score. The fitted regression model was: Exam Score = 67.67 + 5.56*(hours studied) – 0.60*(prep exams taken). The overall regression was statistically significant (R2 = 0.73, F(2, 17) = 23.46, p = < .000). It was found that hours studied significantly predicted exam score (β = 5.56, p < .001). It was found that prep exams taken did not significantly predict exam score (β = -0.60, p = 0.52).

      Examples Reporting of t Test
    • United fans reported higher levels of stress (M = 83, SD = 5) than found in the population as a whole, t(48) = 2.3, p = .026.
    • There was no significant effect for sex, t(38) = 1.7, p = .097, despite women (M = 55, SD = 8) attaining higher scores than men (M = 53, SD = 7.8).
    • The results from the pre-test (M = 13.5, SD = 2.4) and post-test (M = 16.2, SD = 2.7) memory task indicate that the presence of caffeine in the bloodstream resulted in an improvement in memory recall, t(19) = 3.1, = .006.
    • Older adults experienced more loneliness than younger adults, t(32) = 2.94, p = .006.
    • Reaction times were significantly faster for mice in the experimental group, t(53) = 5.94, p < .001.

      Example Reporting of z score
    ​Supplemental Digital Content (SDC)

    • Supplemental Digital Content (SDC) includes tables, graphs, audio, video, etc. 
    • SDC are available in the online version of the article by clicking a URL. 
    • Cite SDC consecutively in the text, as [material type, SDC number, description]. E.g., “We performed tests on elbow flexibility (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, which demonstrates the degrees of flexibility in the elbow) and found our results inconclusive.”
    • Submit a list of SDC at the end of the manuscript file, including the SDC number and file type. 
    • SDC is posted as submitted without editing by the journal. 
    • SDC files should be no larger than 10 MB each. 

    Table Structure
    • Tables summarize and display large amounts of data more concisely than words.
    • Tables use a row-column structure and should have a minimum of 2 columns displayed.
    • Tables should be self-explanatory and supplement, not duplicate the material in the text.
    • Limit the total number of tables and figures combined to 5.
    • Submit extra tables as Supplemental Digital Content.
    • Submit large tables (> 8 columns or > 40 rows) as Supplemental Digital Content.

      Table Placement
    • Do not embed tables within the text (placement is determined by publishing staff).
    • Submit each table on a separate page in an editable text file (Word).
    • Group all tables in a separate file called Tables and follow the key points at the end of the manuscript.

      Table Titles
    • Number all tables (even if only one) in the order cited within the text.
    • Ensure that there is a corresponding callout in the text for each table.
    • Label each table with a concise, descriptive title (max 12 words) in title case.

      Table Body
    • Create tables using 10- or 11-point font, with 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 spacing.
    • Remove background shading and minimize gridlines to Increase table white space.

      Note. Underneath
    • Express Note. in italics followed by a period, place under the table.
    • Define all abbreviations in the Note beneath, even if previously defined in the text.
    • Use superscript lowercase letters (a, b, c) or asterisks (*) to note special circumstances like
      • To explain the reason when category percentages do not sum to 100%
      • To specify between one-tailed and two-tailed tests in the same table

        Table Columns
    • Place demographic or independent text variables in the leftmost column.
    • List race and ethnicity categories in alphabetical order instead of by prevalence, but list “other" and “unknown" last.
    • Place numerical data for group comparisons across table columns.
    • Use column headings and subheadings to delineate subcategories.
    • List statistic names in the column headings, such as n, %, when the data displays the same statistic throughout the table (see Example A below).
    • List the statistic and unit of measurement in the left-most column when tables report a mix of different types of statical data (see Example B below).
    • Left-align the column with text.
    • Right-align the columns with numbers and report to a consistent number of decimal places (typically 2) to help the reader make comparisons when scanning columns.

      Example A

      Table 1. Demographic Characteristics
    Demographic CharacteristicsGuided self-helpUnguided self-helpWait-list control
    Marital status      
    Children a265226522244

    Note. a Reflects the number and percentage of participants answering “yes" to this question.

    Example B
    Table 1. Demographic Characteristics

    Demographic CharacteristicsTotalDischargedDiedp
    n (%)                  40073599 (89.8%)404 (10.1%) 
    Age, mean (SD), years          37  (12.8)38 (12.8)36 (12.7).004
         Male n (%)
         Female n (%)
    3019 (75.3)
    988 (24.7)
    2681 (88.9)
    918 (93.0)
    335 (11.1)
    69 (7.0)
    Injury Severity Score, median (IQR)17.3915.52 (8.5)33.98 (16.9).000
    Systolic Blood Pressure, mean (SD)128.42 (40.6)135.54 (28.3)61.03 (68.5).000
    Glasgow Motor Score, mean (SD)5.29 (1.65)5.67 (1.1)1.83 (1.7).000
    Glasgow Motor Score
         High Function (6)
         Moderate Function (2-5)
         Low Function (1)
    3200 (81.0)
    282 (7.1)
    471 (11.9)
    3153 (88.6)
    246 (6.9)
    161 (4.5)
    47 (12.0)
    36 (9.2)
    310 (78.9)

    See APA table formatting and examples at:

    ​Title Case
    • Capitalize the first letter of each word in a sentence except minor words (less than 4 letters), E.g., The Lord of the Flies.
    ​Title Page
    ​The title page provides critical information and includes the following items as applicable:

    Running Head
    Abbreviated title <6 words, capitalized, in the header, left aligned.

    List the full manuscript title, in title case, centered.

    Author List
    List names in order with credentials, affiliations, ORCID#, Twitter, and Email
    -List the first name, middle initial, and last name of each author
    -List credentials in order of highest first: academic degrees, licensure, certifications
    -List completed (earned) degrees only, do not include candidacy credentials like PhD©
    -List affiliation (where the study was performed), department, institution, and location.
    -List the author's ORCID number
    -List Twitter handle and email address (as applicable)

    Corresponding Author
    List name, address, phone, and email address

    Author Changes
    Indicate recent author changes in degree, title, or affiliation. E. g. Author XX is now Trauma Program Manager at XX Trauma Center.

    Conference Presentations
    List the name, date, and location of any conference or professional meeting at which the material was presented. If the proceedings were published, provide that citation.

    Overlapping Publications and Preprints
    List the citations of any disseminated or published material that significantly overlaps with the manuscript. This may include similar articles, published conference proceedings, preprints, or protocols. Submit a copy of the related material with an explanation of key differences. (See also Previously Published Material)

    Trial Registration
    Clinical trials must include preregistration. List the trial registry name, registration identification number, and the URL for the registry.
    List all contributions, disclosures, thank you credits, and financial support.
    List the use of artificial intelligence; include the following:

    • Briefly describe what content was created or edited by AI in the manuscript.
    • List the name of the AI software, version, extension numbers, and manufacturer.
    • Do not reference the AI software.
    • This requirement does not apply to grammar or spell-check software.

    • ​Build a cohesive text using transition words to link sentences and paragraphs.

    ​Trauma Center Name
    • See Hospital naming

    • Use 12 pt Times New Roman
    ​Units of Measure

    • ​Use the International System of Units (SI) (metric system) for all measurements.
    • Where U.S. measurements must be used, include metric equivalents in parentheses.
    • List temperatures in degrees Celsius.
    • List blood pressure in millimeters of mercury.​
    • ​Voice is the author's point of view (person).
    • Active Voice (subject, verb, object) or (who did, what“) "Students completed surveys."
    • Passive Voice (object, verb, subject“) "Surveys were completed by students."
    • Active voice is now preferred over passive to create direct, clear, concise sentences.
    • Most articles are a mix. Because what was done is more important than who did it, using passive voice is appropriate to describe the methods section.
    • Example: “A coin was tossed to select an intervention group and a control group." 
    ​Word Count

    • ​Manuscript word count includes the abstract and main text; it excludes the references, tables, and figures.

    • Accepted length varies by article type. (See Overview Chart).​


    • ​Readability is a factor in the acceptance of all papers; strive to enlighten, not to impress.
    • Write concisely to the level of an experienced trauma clinician.
    • Avoid jargon, unnecessary wordiness, and overlong sentences and paragraphs.
    • Avoid redundancy, state concepts only once.
    • Present information in a logical and consistent order.
    • Use clear, concise, consistent terminology.
    • Start a new paragraph when moving to a new idea.
    • Make sure every paragraph is relevant to your argument or question.
    • Use transition words to connect between different ideas within and between sentences.
    • Use appropriate punctuation to avoid sentence fragments or run-on sentences.
    • Use a variety of sentence lengths and structures.
    • Present ideas in direct, straightforward, simple declarative sentences, using active voice.
    • Clarity is the author's responsibility, not the readers.
    • The editorial office reserves the right to modify text for readability during copyediting.
    • Data is plural; express as “data were," not data was
    • Avoid anthropomorphizing inanimate objects. Rather than 'The study found,' write 'Study findings revealed…' or 'Researchers reported….'
    • Consider the use of grammar check software before submitting your work. 

    Publication Phases


    • The manuscript or parts of it must not have been previously published in any format or any language;
    • Previous presentation as an abstract, poster, or oral presentation at a conference is acceptable;
    • The article must NOT be under consideration for publication elsewhere; 
    • Manuscripts will be assessed with software to detect plagiarism and inappropriate duplication;
    • The manuscript must be the sole intellectual property of the authors of the paper; 
    • The author accepts full responsibility for the accuracy of all content within the manuscript;
    • The author must disclose all conflicts of interest and sources of research funding on submission;
    • Once accepted, manuscripts become the permanent property of JTN;
    • The author accepts editing of their manuscript to meet formatting requirements;
    • The manuscript will be considered under review at JTN and cannot be submitted to another journal, until the author formally withdraws the manuscript.

    JTN is pleased to work with Paperpal Preflight a service that instantly checks your manuscript for common errors and omissions allowing you to correct them before you submit your manuscript.
    • The service helps authors correct technical issues and improve language quality.
    • The JTN PaperPal Preflight link is available here.


    Submit manuscripts online at our submission siteFirst-time users click the Register button and enter the requested information. On successful registration, you will be sent an email indicating your user’s name and password (save for reference). Note: If you have previously registered and have an assigned user ID and password, do not register again. Just log in. Assigned ID and passwords remain the same whether used as an author, reviewer, or editor. Authors: Click the log-in button at the top of the page to log in as an Author. Submit your manuscript according to the author's instructions. You will be able to track the progress of your manuscript through the system. If you have problems, email Judy Mikhail, Editor, at [email protected]


    Initial Screen

    The editor initially triages manuscripts to suit the journal's mission, vision, and aims. Those deemed unsuitable are rejected outright. Manuscripts judged worthy of further consideration are forwarded to a technical check.

    Technical Check
    Manuscripts judged worthy of further consideration are screened by the Editor in more detail for: 

    • Plagiarism and duplication detection using specialized software analysis
    • Masking of author or institution names beyond the title page
    • IRB ethics approval (required) for research and performance improvement studies 
    • Patient permission for case studies
    • APA 7th Ed formatting
    • Correct article type selection
    If technical corrections are required, the manuscript is returned to the author for correction and resubmission. Manuscripts not addressed within 30 days are cleared from the Editorial Manager System and require resubmission as a new manuscript. Manuscripts with completed technical checks judged worthy of consideration are forwarded for peer review. 

    Review Process Overview

    The JTN reviews will be objective, rigorous, and responsible. The editor strives to work with and invest in authors to improve their manuscripts to achieve the greatest scholarly impact for a knowledgeable trauma audience. It is a condition of submission that the authors permit editing of the manuscript for readability. We strive to achieve a cogent, professionally written, error-free article by editing grammar, style, readability, and sense, cross-checking all numbers, statements, and references while maintaining confidential, respectful, and timely communication with authors. Revision requests are commonplace, averaging up to 3 or more per paper. The reviews strive to be sensitive to authors writing in a language that is not their first or most proficient language and phrase the feedback appropriately and with due respect. Authors should submit revisions within 30 days but may request an extension from the editor. Manuscripts remaining unaddressed for two months are cleared from the Editorial Manager System and will require resubmission as a new manuscript.

    Peer Review Confi​dentiality

    The existence of a manuscript under review should not be revealed to anyone other than peer reviewers and editorial staff. Peer reviewers and authors must maintain the confidentiality of manuscripts during the entire review process. 

    Double-Anonymized Peer Review

    JTN uses a double-anonymized review where the identities of both the authors and reviewers are concealed from each other. Manuscripts are reviewed by at least two but often up to four peer-review panel members, selected based on their areas of interest and expertise. Reviews are expected to be timely (within 21 days). The editor may assign additional reviews from experts in related fields (statisticians, psychologists, librarians, and methods experts), extending the turnaround time. Reviewers make recommendations about article relevance, originality, context, advancement, credibility, and writing. The editor may organize and lightly edit reviewer comments for consistency with JTN author guidelines. The editor notifies the author of the journal's decision and provides the reviewer feedback listing issues to address. Note: Preprint article authors are not eligible for double anonymous peer review, as their work is readily identifiable and publicly available.

    Editor's Decision

    The editor holds final responsibility for the manuscript's decision. The decision is either: (a) to accept the manuscript, (b) to reject the manuscript, or (c) to invite a revision (minor or major). The decision is sent to the corresponding author through the Editorial Manager system. Mos​t manuscripts submitted to JTN require some revision before acceptance. A decision to “accept with revision” is not a commitment to accept the paper if the author fails to make the recommended changes. 

     Responding to Reviewer and Editor Comments

    Authors do not have to agree with reviewer comments, but all comments should be addressed. Submit revisions in a simple table as an itemized, point-by-point response to each reviewer's comment. Detail what was changed or not with rationale. Example table below:

    Reviewer Comments
    Author Response (Changes Made or Explanation)

    Remove all masking on the first revision. Submit the revised manuscript as a clean version without highlighting or track changes. Further revisions may still be required, including changes not initially identified or addressed in previous reviews.

    Copyright Transfer Agreement Forms
    Each author must complete and submit the journal’s copyright transfer agreement form before an article can be accepted for publication. The corresponding author completes the agreement upon manuscript submission. All other coauthors receive an email with instructions to complete the form. Articles will not be published until all coauthors have submitted the completed forms. If a coauthor cannot be reached, the article will automatically be “suspended” from moving forward until all forms are received.

    Authors may appeal review decisions. Submit appeals in writing directly to the Editor. Appeals must be submitted within 30 days of the rejection decision. One appeal per manuscript, applicable only to manuscripts that have gone through peer review. Please state why you think the decision is mistaken, and provide all relevant details in the appeal letter, including the reviewer's comments and the author’s response. The editor will decide whether to invite a resubmission, send it to another external reviewer, or uphold the original decision.


    Proofreading & Corrections
    Accepted manuscripts are edited for APA, style, readability, and space requirements and returned to the corresponding author for approval and the opportunity to correct. Proofreading and correction is time sensitive and require a prompt author response (within 24 to 48 hours). The author is responsible for ensuring no factual errors in the proofs, but simple stylistic changes or substantial rework of previously accepted material is disallowed. Due to the tight timeline, the number of changes that can be accommodated is limited to five per manuscript. The publisher reserves the right to deny any changes that do not affect the accuracy of the content. If the author requires more than five changes, the article will be “suspended” from publication and held over for a future issue, allowing time to accommodate all requested changes.

    Prepublication Embargo
     Authors should not disclose that their manuscript has been accepted to anyone except coauthors and contributors without the editor's permission until it is published. The confidentiality restriction does not apply to information presented at scientific or clinical meetings or publication of a conference abstract if authors do not present or distribute the manuscript or its full findings. 


    Open Access Option

    In the open-access model, authors of accepted peer-reviewed articles can pay a fee to allow perpetual, unrestricted online access to their published articles to readers globally immediately upon publication. Authors may take advantage of the open-access option at the point of submission. This choice does not influence the peer review and acceptance process. These articles are subject to the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit. The article processing charge (APC) is charged on accepting the article and should be paid within 30 days by the author, funding agency, or institution. Payment must be processed for the article to be published open-access. The authors retain the copyright to the article. Authors grant Wolters Kluwer an exclusive license to publish the article, made available under the terms of a Creative Commons user license. For more information, see Wolters Kluwer Open Access FAQs 

    Subscription Option

    By default, if an author does not select open-access, the article will be published using the subscription option. In the subscription model, articles are available to journal subscribers only, and there is no fee to the author. The copyright for the published content is transferred from the author to the journal. In this traditional academic publishing industry model, only those who have purchased a subscription to the journal (individual subscriber or library) will have access to your paper.


    Social Media
    The JTN Digital Editor works with corresponding authors to assist with social media promotion of their article. 
    On article publication, the corresponding author will receive an email notification to order reprints through the reprint website storefront:  For reprints of articles published more than one year ago or questions, please contact Wolters Kluwer Author Reprint Customer Service or call 1-866-903-6951.

    Authors should inform the editor of any errors of fact in their published article. Corrections are made at the journal’s discretion. We will correct errors affecting a non-proprietary drug name, dose, or unit, any numerical error in the results, or any factual error in the interpretation of results. Corrections that do not affect the scientific understanding of the paper, such as formatting, typographical errors, preference of wording, or authorship changes, are disallowed. If warranted, a correction notice summarizing the errors and corrections is published promptly and linked online to the original article. The original article is corrected online with the date of correction.

    The journal editor considers retractions in cases of evidence of unreliable data or findings, plagiarism, duplicate publication, and unethical research. We may consider an expression of concern notice if an article is under investigation. All retraction notices explain why the article was retracted. 

    Editorial Policies

    Research Integrity
    The following organizations guide JTN's Editorial Policies:


     JTN follows the ICMJE authorship criteria. Each author must meet one of each of the following four criteria:

    1. substantial contributions to conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; and
    2. drafting of the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
    3. final approval of the version to be published; and
    4. agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
    Artificial Intelligence 

    Nonhuman artificial intelligence (AI) does not qualify for authorship and should not be cited and referenced. Report the use of artificial intelligence to create content or assist with writing or editing in the Acknowledgments section of the Title page. Describe how the AI software was used in the manuscript. State the AI software name, version, extension numbers, manufacturer, and location. Authors are fully responsible for the content of their manuscript, including those parts produced by an AI tool, and are thus liable for any breach of publication ethics.

    Author Contribution

    To aid in providing author credit, JTN uses the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) to specify author contributions. The authors outline their individual contributions to the paper using the recognized relevant 14 CRediT roles on submission. All other persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in this manuscript (E.g., data collection, analysis, or writing or editing assistance) but who do not fulfill the ICMJE authorship criteria should be named with their specific contributions and affiliations in the Acknowledgment section (see also Acknowledgments; Title page). 

    Corresponding Author
    A single author will serve on behalf of all coauthors as the primary correspondent with the editorial office.

    Corresponding Author Responsibilities:
    • Ensure all authors have (a) consented to submission to the journal, (b) approved the submitted version of the article, and (c) all further revisions. 
    • Ensure that the paper is not under consideration by any other journal at the time of submission.
    • Ensure the order and accuracy of all author names, credentials, and institution affiliations on the title page, which serves as the final source for publication. 
    • Ensure that the conflict-of-interest disclosures reported in the manuscript's Acknowledgment section are accurate, up-to-date, and consistent with the author's declared statements.
    • Ensure that the author and institution are masked (with dark highlighting) within the text on the initial submission for peer review. 
    • Ensure all authors complete their copyright transfer agreement forms and submit their ORCID numbers upon final acceptance of the article.
    • The corresponding author will review, edit, and approve manuscript proofs, handle all post-publication communications and inquiries, and is identified as the corresponding author in the published article.


    ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier) is a widely accepted unique identifier for researchers and authors. The ORICID is a simple numerical identifier (e.g., 0000-0001-6479-5330) that distinguishes researchers from one another. ORCID identities allow researchers to link their professional activities and publications to their unique records, ensuring their scholarly contributions are properly attributed and permanently showcased. JTN request all authors to submit their ORCID number on manuscript submission. It is free and takes seconds to register and obtain a number. Go to and follow the prompts to register. Authors can add their ORCID number to their Editorial Manager account by logging into Editorial Manager → Update My Information → Personal Information →  enter ORCID # → submit. List all author ORCID numbers on the Title page.

    Dual Authorship

    In limited cases, dual or co-authorship is allowed. List authors who share the first authorship in bold text on the title page and the reference list. Also, include the phrase "Author names in bold designate shared co-first authorship" on the title page and at the end of the references section. Only one author may serve as the corresponding author. The corresponding author will be listed first.

    Changes in Authorship

    Authors should determine author inclusion and order before submitting their manuscripts. Changes in authorship (order, addition, deletion) require notification to the Editor with the reason. All authors (including those being removed) must confirm by email to the Editor that they consent to the change. The Editor does not get involved in authorship disputes. Until the authorship is resolved, the article will be suspended (placed on hold) and not move forward in the review or acceptance process. Articles that remain unresolved after three months will be removed from the Editorial Manager system. JTN does not make changes to author names after publication. The use of ORCID, despite name changes, ensures that all author's prior publications are discoverable in one place. 

    Group Authorship

    If authorship is attributed to a group (either solely or in addition to one or more individual authors), all group members must meet the full criteria and requirements for authorship, and all group member authors must complete copyright transfer agreements. List the individual names first, followed by "& the members of xx group" or “on behalf of the members of XX group.”

    Example: Deeken, F., Sánchez, A., Rapp, M. A., Denkinger, M., Brefka, S., Spank, J., Bruns, C., von Arnim, C. A. F., & The PAWEL Study Group. (2021). Outcomes of a Delirium Prevention Program in Older Persons After Elective Surgery: A Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Surgery, e216370-e216370.

    For articles with many authors, a long list of authors will not fit in the byline of a print or PDF version of the article. In such cases, a group byline will be recommended with the individual names of each author listed at the end of the article. All author names will be individually indexed, displayed, and easily searchable in bibliographic records such as PubMed. 

    Nonauthor Collaborators

    Other group members who do not meet the criteria for authorship (advisors, assistants) should be identified in the Acknowledgments Section, including those using artificial intelligence technologies.


    JTN follows ICMJE Conflict of Interest Recommendations. A conflict of interest exists when an author, peer reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships with persons or organizations that may inappropriately influence or bias their actions. There is a potential for a conflict of interest whether an individual believes that a relationship affects their scientific judgment or not. All peer review or publication participants must disclose relationships viewed as potential conflicts of interest. 

    Potential Author Conflicts of Interest and Financial Disclosures
    Authors are expected to disclose all possible conflicts of interest on the title page, including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, funding, grants, consultancies, honoraria, speakers’ bureaus, expert testimony, donation of medical equipment, royalties, or patents. If there is no conflict of interest, this should be explicitly stated.

    Each author must complete and submit the Journal's Copyright Transfer Agreement, which includes a section on disclosing potential conflicts of interest based on ICMJE, "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" ( A copy of the form is available to the submitting author and coauthors during the Editorial Manager submission process. Articles will not be published until all authors submit signed Copyright Transfer Agreement forms.

    Potential Reviewer Conflicts
    Peer reviewer, potential conflicts of interest include individuals who are in direct competition with the authors, are a co-worker or collaborator or have a personal relationship with one of the authors, are affiliated with the same institution as one of the authors, have a financial interest in the subject matter under review, are in a position which prevents you from giving an objective opinion of the work The journal requires peer reviewers to disclose any conflicts to the editor upon receiving an invitation to review and recuse themselves from reviewing manuscripts where the potential for bias exists. Reviewers may not disclose or use knowledge of the work they review before publication to further their interests. 

    Potential Editorial Board Member Conflicts
    The JTN Editorial Board members may serve on the editorial boards of other journals. However, individuals may not serve on the JTN Editorial Board and the STN Board of Directors simultaneously. Editorial Board Members are encouraged to submit manuscripts to JTN but will remain independent of the editorial review process. 

    Potential Editor Conflicts
    Potential Editor conflicts include the editor serving as an author of a manuscript (other than an Editorial) or when the editor has a close relationship with a manuscript author or has a financial interest in the subject matter. Following the guidelines set by the Committee on Publication Ethics, in these cases, the manuscript review process and the final decision will be managed independently of the editor. To avoid conflict of interest, the editor does not process their own submissions and will disclose this in the article. 

    Editorial Independence
    Per ICMJE, the JTN adopts the World Association of Medical Editors’ (WAME) definition of editorial freedom, which holds that editors-in-chief have full authority over the entire editorial content of their journal and the timing of publication of that content. The Society of Trauma Nurses does not interfere in the evaluation, selection, scheduling, or editing of individual articles directly or by creating an environment that strongly influences decisions. Individuals may not serve on the JTN editorial board and STN board of directors simultaneously. 

    Advertising Policy
    JTN maintains a strict line of separation between advertising and journal content to maintain the journal's quality and ensure that commercial considerations do not affect editorial decisions. JTN carefully differentiates editorial content and advertising. Advertising does not influence editorial decisions or editorial content. JTN does not publish sponsored supplements or advertorials.

    All articles published, including opinion articles or editorials, represent the authors' opinions and do not reflect the official policy of JTN, the Society of Trauma Nurses, Wolters Kluwer, or the institutions with which the author is affiliated unless otherwise indicated. The final responsibility for the scientific accuracy and validity of published manuscripts rests with the authors, not the journal, its editors, its reviewers, or the publisher. The journal does not guarantee, warrant, or endorse any advertised product or service, nor do they guarantee any claim made by manufacturers of such product or service.


    Data Responsibility

    For all studies containing original data, specific authors that had full access to the study data and who take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis should be identified in the CRediT section on manuscript submission (See also Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT). List those individuals who conducted the analysis but who are not listed as authors in the acknowledgments section of the title page to explain their contributions. 

    Data Sharing 
    To encourage research trust, transparency and reproducibility and to promote collaboration, JTN encourages all datasets on which the paper's conclusions are based to be available for further scrutiny. JTN does not consider the deposition of data, including trial data, in recognized repositories to be prior publication. Authors are encouraged to make either (a) data available in a public, open-access repository, (b) ensure data are present in full within the manuscript, or (c) make the data available upon reasonable request. We expect that all authors follow established best scientific practice and record (and retain) source material of experiments and research results in an auditable manner that allows for scrutiny and verification by other scientists if required. Exceptions may be appropriate to preserve privacy or patent protection. All data publicly available and used in the writing of an article should be cited in the text and reference list.

    Preregistration Requirements

    Clinical Trials
    Clinical trials must have been registered before the first participant's enrollment to be eligible for peer review. The NIH defines a clinical trial as a research study in which one or more human subjects are prospectively assigned to one or more interventions (including placebo or other control) to evaluate the effects of those interventions on health-related biomedical or behavioral outcomes. This requirement applies to all clinical trials. Registration is also required for the consideration of brief reports describing protocols for full-scale RCTs. Reports of findings from unregistered clinical trials will be returned and will not be peer-reviewed. Trials registration websites include: WHO and CLINICALTRIALS.GOV - the registry name and trial number on the title page and at the end of the abstract. For more information, see ICMJE/Clinical Trial Registration at

    Systematic Reviews
    Systematic reviews should have been registered before performing the review. Registering with a protocol aims to provide a central listing to avoid duplication and reduce the opportunity for reporting bias by comparing the completed review with what was planned in the protocol. Registering the systematic review protocol serves as a record and should be cited in the Methods section of your manuscript. Reviews can be registered at PROSPERO, an international database of prospectively registered systematic reviews for health outcomes.


    Ethical Approval and Informed Consent
    A formal ethics review, with approval or waiver, is required from the institutional review board or ethics committee for all manuscripts reporting human data (Research and Quality Improvement studies). Place the IRB or ethics statement in the Methods section (Research Design paragraph), identifying the full name of the granting committee's hospital or university and the IRB or ethics committee approval number. The journal requires that the IRB letter be submitted with the manuscript. The determination must come from the institution’s ethics regulatory body, the institutional review board, not the author or other hospital administrators. ​For those investigators from countries that do not have formal ethics review committees, follow the principles outlined in the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Patient Identification
    It is the author's responsibility to ensure that a patient's anonymity is carefully protected, to verify that any experimental investigation with human subjects reported in the manuscript was performed with informed consent and follows all the guidelines for experimental investigation with human subjects required by the institution(s) with which all the authors are affiliated. Authors must comply with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HIPAA Privacy Rule, particularly those provisions concerned with protecting health information in research (more information can be found at Authors should mask patients' eyes and remove patient names from figures unless written consent has been obtained and submitted with the manuscript.

    Animal Experimentation
    For original research articles in the Journal reporting studies involving animals, the corresponding author must confirm that all experiments were performed in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations (i.e., IACUC guidelines and federal regulations). When documenting animal studies, we recommend adhering to the ARRIVE.

    Personal Communications
    List personal communication in the text parenthetically but do not include it in the references. A signed and dated permission statement from the individual is required, and whether the communication was written or oral should be specified. 

    Authors are responsible for obtaining signed letters from copyright holders granting permission to reprint material borrowed or adapted from other sources, including previously published material of your own or Wolters Kluwer. This includes forms, checklists, cartoons, text, tables, figures, exhibits, glossaries, and pamphlets; concepts, theories, or formulas used exclusively in a chapter or section; direct quotes from a book or journal that are over 30% of a printed page; and all excerpts from newspapers or other short articles. These items may not be used without written permission from the copyright holder. Authors are responsible for any permission fees to borrow reprinted material.

    Embargo Policy 
    In journalism and public relations, the press is often given advanced knowledge of an article to prepare a review but cannot release it until press time. Articles to be published in JTN are assigned an embargo period of 7 days. Authors, journalists, and their institutions cannot release the article information before this time. 

    Compliance With Funding Agency Requirements 
    Several research funding agencies now require or request authors to submit the post-print (the article after peer review and acceptance but not the final published article) to a repository accessible online by all without charge. As a service to our authors, Wolters Kluwer will identify to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) articles that require a deposit and will transmit the post-print of an article based on research funded in whole or in part by the National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, or other funding agencies to PubMed Central. The revised Copyright Transfer Agreement provides the mechanism.


    Conference Proceedings
    Manuscripts in which the abstract has been previously presented at a conference, either as an oral presentation or by poster exhibit, are eligible for consideration for publication. Authors of submitted papers, including those accepted but not yet published, should not disclose the status of such papers during meeting presentations before the work is published. Publication of abstracts in print and online conference proceedings and posting slides or videos from the scientific presentation on the meeting website is acceptable. Indicate the conference name and date on the Title page. Include the full citation to published proceedings. The submitted manuscript Title and Abstract should be reworded slightly to be different than the online conference proceedings. Consult the Editor for assistance.

    Disclose to the editor in the cover letter and title page if the submission has been deposited to a publicly accessible repository or preprint server. Note that authors of preprint articles are not eligible for double anonymous peer review, as the article is already identifiable and publicly available. If the submission is accepted, authors must update the preprint version with the final publication information and link to the JTN article. 

    Overlapping Publications
    JTN will not publish articles that overlap substantially with articles already published elsewhere (excludes conference oral or poster presentations and preprints). On submission, authors should inform the Editor via the cover letter and title page of any potential overlap or duplication. Authors should submit copies of related articles and explain the differences. JTN will follow the COPE redundant (duplicate) publication flowchart.


    JTN takes scientific misconduct seriously. Concerns will be dealt with on a case-by-case basis while following guidance produced by bodies that include the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). WAMEs overview of misconduct is useful, using a slightly amended version of the US Office of Research Integrity definition of scientific misconduct and includes the following:

    Authorship improprieties: improper assignment of credit, such as excluding others, misrepresentation of the same material as original in more than one publication, the inclusion of individuals as authors who have not made a definite contribution to the work published, or submission of multi-authored publications without the concurrence of all authors.

    Falsification of data: ranges from fabrication to dishonest reporting of findings and omission of conflicting data or willful suppression or distortion of data.

    Inappropriate behavior concerning misconduct includes unfounded or knowingly false accusations of misconduct, failure to report known or suspected misconduct, withholding of information relevant to a claim or misconduct, and retaliation against persons involved in the allegation or investigation.

    Material failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements affecting research: including but not limited to serious or substantial, repeated, willful violations of applicable local regulations and law involving the use of funds, care of animals, human subjects, investigational drugs, recombinant products, new devices, or radioactive, biological, or chemical materials.

    Misappropriation of the ideas of others: an important aspect of scholarly activity is the exchange of ideas among colleagues. Scholars can acquire novel ideas from others while reviewing grant applications and manuscripts. However, improper use of such information can constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.

    Plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication: The appropriation of the language, ideas, or thoughts of another without crediting their true source and representation of them as one’s own original work.

    Previously published: Submission to JTN implies that the work described has not been accepted for publication elsewhere, is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and does not duplicate material already published. JTN does not consider the deposition of data or preprints in dedicated repositories to be prior publication.

    Simultaneous submission occurs when a person submits a paper to different publications simultaneously, which can result in more than one journal publishing that particular paper. Articles submitted for publication must be original and must not have been submitted to any other journal. We require authors to disclose any details of related papers in press, including translations. 

    Salami slicing (or salami publication) is the unnecessary splitting of findings from a single study across several publications. Salami slicing is considered a form of redundant publication. We do not accept publications where we suspect salami slicing has occurred, as these publications can skew the scientific record and create biases in the results of meta-analyses. All submitted articles will be assessed for potential salami slicing as part of our standard checks. Studies with significant similarities in the hypotheses, population, and methods should usually be presented to the readers in a single paper. If you believe that you have legitimate grounds to submit multiple publications based on the same study, we ask that you inform the editorial office about all potentially overlapping papers (published or unpublished). For further information about best practices, please refer to the ICMJE guidance on overlapping publications.

    Violation of generally accepted research practices
    Serious deviation from accepted practices in proposing or carrying out research, improper manipulation of experiments to obtain biased results, deceptive statistical or analytical manipulations, or improper reporting of results. A lack of declaration of competing interests, funding/sponsorship, and other transparency failures.

    Dealing with allegations of misconduct
    We take all possible misconduct seriously. If an editor is concerned that a submitted article describes something that might constitute misconduct in research, publication, or professional behavior, we will follow the COPE guidelines.

    Plagiarism detection
    JTN uses iThenticate, a plagiarism screening service that verifies the originality of content submitted before publication. iThenticate checks submissions against millions of published research papers and billions of web content. Authors, researchers, and freelancers can also use iThenticate to screen their work before submission by visiting

    Handling of Misconduct Allegations
    JTN will follow COPE recommendations when they suspect misconduct or receive credible allegations of a breach of journal policies. The editor will make every effort to notify the authors or reviewers before investigating possible misconduct with outside entities. Individuals found to have committed research misconduct are subject to editorial action, including but not limited to (1) disclosure of violations to employers, educational institutions, funding agencies, or other journal offices and (2) publication of a retraction, correction, or editorial. JTN is prepared to issue retractions or corrections (according to the COPE guidelines on retractions) when findings of misconduct are confirmed arising from investigations.