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JOURNAL DESCRIPTION
 
The Journal of Trauma Nursing (JTN) is the official journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses (STN). Started in 1995, JTN is an international, peer-reviewed, scientific, bi-monthly journal that supports the STN mission by publishing original articles that advance trauma care globally across the trauma continuum.
 
Mission:
To improve trauma care by delivering the highest-quality evidence to trauma teams globally.
 
Vision:
To be a global leader in advancing trauma center evidence-based practice.
 
Aims:

  1. To advance new trauma knowledge.
  2. To appraise current trauma knowledge.
  3. To disseminate trauma quality improvement projects.
  4. To share trauma center best practice innovations.

     Scope:

    JTN publishes high-quality papers that make key contributions to contemporary trauma center care. Topics include clinical, trauma center leadership, organization, management, registry, quality improvement, injury prevention, education, outreach, health policy, and system development.

     Audience: JTN is essential reading for anyone involved in trauma care, novice to expert, whether a trauma team member, clinician, student, educator, administrator, researcher, or policymaker. JTN spans the continuum of trauma center disciplines, departments, settings, levels, and locations.  

    Impact Factor: 1.01 Clarivate Analytics © Journal Citation Reports 2020

     Abstracting and Indexing:

    CINAHL, EBSCO-A-Z, EMBASE, Ex Libris, INR, JCR, JournalGuide, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PUBMED, SCIE, SSCI, SCOPUS, and TDNet.  JTN is provided free or at nominal cost to institutions in low- and middle-income countries through participation in the HINARI Program developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). More detailed information is available here.

    Manuscript Are Evaluated On:
  1. Topic Relevance: Is the topic pertinent to contemporary trauma care?
  2. Study Originality: Is the study interesting, innovative, or novel?
  3. Study Context: Is the study framed with adequate breadth and currency of related literature?
  4. Knowledge Advancement: Does the study add, extend, or challenge what is currently known?
  5. Scientific Strength: Are the aim, design, data analysis, and conclusions aligned, reliable, and valid?
  6. Writing Impact: Does the writing communicate concisely, with continuity, flow, and impact?

     
    ARTICLE TYPES

    Overview of Article Types

LimitsResearch ArticlesSystematic
Reviews
Quality
Improvement
Concise
Reviews
InnovationsCase
Reports
QualitativeQuantitativeResearch
Briefs
AuthorNANANANANANANA3
IRB
Required
YesYesYesNo
YesNoNoNo
Words 60004000300040004000300030002000
References 5050308040404025
Figures
Tables
55355553
Abstract Limit250250250250250250250250
Key Points3-53-53-53-53-53-53-53-5
Reporting GuidelineSRQR
COREQ
EQUATOR
NETWORK
EQUATOR
NETWORK
PRISMA
MOOSE
SQUIRENANACARE
SCARE
Title: include article typeTitle: Qualitative StudyNANATitle:
Systematic Review
NATitle: Concise ReviewNATitle: Case Report
Abstract HeadingsBackground
Objective
Methods
Results
Conclusion
Background
Objective
Methods
Results
Conclusion
Background Objectives
Methods
Results
Conclusion
Background Objectives
Methods
Results
Conclusion
Background
Objective
Methods
Results
Conclusion
Objective
Data Sources
Study Selection
Data Extraction
Data Synthesis
Conclusions
Background
Objective
Methods
Results
Conclusion
Background
Case Presentation Conclusion
Keywords5-75-75-75-75-75-75-75-7
Text HeadingsBackground
Objective
Methods
Results
Discussion
Limitations
Conclusion
Background
Objective
Methods
Results
Discussion
Limitations
Conclusion
Background
Objective
Methods
Results
Discussion
Limitations
Conclusions
Background
Objective
Methods
Results
Discussion
Limitations
Conclusions
Background
Objective
Methods
Results
Discussion
Limitations
Conclusion
Determined material Background
Objective
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Background
Case-Presentation
Discussion
Conclusion

 
ARTICLE TYPES
 
Qualitative Research
 
Qualitative approaches include: narrative, phenomenological, grounded theory, case study, and ethnographic research. Mixed methods study designs include convergent, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.  Limit of 6000 words, 50 references, 5 tables and or figures, 250-word structured abstract, 3-5 Key Points, IRB Required, SRQR, and or COREQ reporting guidelines are recommended.

Exemple qualitative articles:

  1. Lee, D. A., Maxwell, C. A., & Miller, S. (2021). "This Is Me!" Perceptions of older adult simulated participants in an aging and injury simulation experience. J Trauma Nurs, 28(1), 10-20. https://doi.org/10.1097/JTN.0000000000000552
  2. Witt, C. E., & Bulger, E. M. (2017). Comprehensive approach to the management of the patient with multiple rib fractures: A review and introduction of a bundled rib fracture management protocol. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open, 2(1), e000064. https://doi.org/10.1136/tsaco-2016-000064
     
    Quantitative Research

    Primary, original research may include clinical trials, intervention, comparative, cohort, case-control, epidemiologic, survey, decision analysis, cost-effectiveness, study of screening, and diagnostic tests. Articles should include a clearly stated objective (aim) or hypothesis, study design and methodology, inclusion criteria, variable definitions, intervention, outcome measures, and study results.  Limit of 4000 words, 50 references, 5 tables and or figures, 250-word structured abstract, 3-5 Key Points, IRB required, Applicable EQUATOR Guideline Recommended (see EQUATOR-Network.org).

     Research Brief

    Short reports are original research, pilot studies, case series, or preliminary reports of work in progress; they may include studies with small numbers pointing to the need for further investigation. Limit to 3,000 words, 30 references, 3 tables or figures, 250-word structured abstract, 3-5 Key Points, IRB required. See EQUATOR-NETWORK for the appropriate reporting guideline.

    Systematic Reviews

    Systematic Reviews, Integrative Reviews, and Meta-Analysis document the selection, discovery, critique, and synthesis of evidence relevant to well-defined research questions. Include the type of review in the title. Structured abstract should include BACKGROUND, OBJECTIVE, METHODS, RESULTS, CONCLUSION, Systematic Review Registration Number. Text manuscript headings include but are not limited to: BACKGROUND; OBJECTIVE; METHODS: Eligibility Criteria, Data Sources, Search Strategy, Study Selection, Data Extraction, Risk of Bias, Quality of Evidence, Data Synthesis and Analysis, RESULTS; Limitations; CONCLUSIONS: Implications of Key Findings. Limit to 4,000 words, 80 references, 5 tables or figures. IRB is not required. Use the PRISMA statement as a guide and include a completed PRISMA checklist and flow diagram with the manuscript. Blank templates of the checklist and flow diagram can be downloaded from EQUATOR-Network.org.

    Exemplar Studies:
  1. Kodadek, L. M., Freeman, J. J., Tiwary, D., Drake, M. D., Schroeder, M. E., Dultz, L., White, C., Abdel Aziz, H., Crandall, M., Como, J. J., & Rattan, R. (2020). Alcohol-related trauma reinjury prevention with hospital-based screening in adult populations: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma evidence-based systematic review. J Trauma Acute Care Surg, 88(1), 106-112. https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002501
  2. Almuwallad, A., Cole, E., Ross, J., Perkins, Z., & Davenport, R. (2021). The impact of prehospital TXA on mortality among bleeding trauma patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg, 90(5), 901-907. https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000003120

    Quality Improvement

    Quality improvement studies are trauma center data-guided activities designed to improve care delivery, whereas research studies use the scientific method to contribute new knowledge.  Quality Improvement studies examine program or project implementation in real-world settings.  Quality improvement studies should use rigorous design with data collection and include measurement across time; process-control charts are encouraged. Common study designs include quasi-experimental with control groups, regression discontinuity, instrumental variables, interrupted time series, difference-in-differences, and fixed effects designs. Preference to highly generalizable projects. Proprietary devices or programs with low replication opportunity receive lower priority.  Limit to 4000 words, 40 references, 5 tables or figures, 250-word abstract, 3-5 Key Points, IRB Required, SQUIRE2.0 reporting guideline use encouraged.

    Exemplar Studies:
  1. Deutsch, S. A., Henry, M. K., Lin, W., Valentine, K. J., Valente, C., Callahan, J. M., Lavelle, J., Scribano, P. V., & Wood, J. N. (2019). Quality Improvement Initiative to Improve Abuse Screening Among Infants With Extremity Fractures. Pediatr Emerg Care, 35(9), 643-650. https://doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001671
  2. Wooller, K. R., Backman, C., Gupta, S., Jennings, A., Hasimja-Saraqini, D., & Forster, A. J. (2018). A pre and post intervention study to reduce unnecessary urinary catheter use on general internal medicine wards of a large academic health science center. BMC Health Serv Res, 18(1), 642. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3421-2

     Concise Review

    Concise (rapid) reviews are scholarly but not exhaustive evidence-based synthesis of current (5-10 years) literature regarding a specific trauma concern. They should be narrow in focus, rigorous, have broad implications and applicability with directions for future research. Limit to 3000 words, 40 references, 5 tables or figures, 250-word abstract, 3-5 Key Points. 

    Example Studies
  1. Geiger, H., & Samai, K. (2021). Desmopressin for Antiplatelet-Associated Intracranial Hemorrhage: A Concise Review. J Trauma Nurs, 28(1), 56-58. https://doi.org/10.1097/jtn.0000000000000558.
  2. Cable, C. A., Razavi, S. A., Roback, J. D., & Murphy, D. J. (2019). RBC Transfusion Strategies in the ICU: A Concise Review. Crit Care Med, 47(11), 1637-1644. https://doi.org/10.1097/ccm.0000000000003985

    Innovations

    Innovation articles narratively describe the implementation of a trauma center project, initiative, or program but do not collect or examine data or show outcome data. Innovations address well-defined, real-world problems with tools, care bundles, protocols, guidelines, forms, or checklists, that assist with implementation in practice. Topics can address any aspect of trauma center care or management. A relevant question may have good evidence and guidelines available to support the approach, but implementation assistance is needed; alternatively, it may have weak evidence to support an approach but is a question with which clinicians struggle in practice. While the article may focus on an individual innovation, the content must be placed within existing literature and have broad implications and applicability across trauma centers. Proprietary programs that cannot be replicated or have low generalizability receive low priority. Innovation articles do not require IRB and do not report results with data; rather, those should be submitted as QI articles.  Innovation articles are limited to 3000 words, 40 references, and five figures or tables. 

    Innovations Suggested Outline

    Background (two-three paragraphs):
    • Briefly describe the problem and its significance (why did you start this project?)
    • What is currently known or not known about the problem (cite select, relevant studies)

      Objective (one sentence):
    • The purpose of this article is ...

      Methods:
    • Context: Briefly describe your trauma center and team roles involved in the work
    • Describe the project implementation
    • Include a figure of a timeline diagram, or flow chart with the order of project steps, including modifications made to the intervention during the project
    • Include figures of any tools, protocols, guidelines, forms, or checklists used

      Results:
  • Describe the project impact, including barriers, success, and failures
  • Describe any unintended consequences such as unexpected benefits, problems, or costs

    Discussion:
  • Discuss the project implications on practice
  • Compare and contrast your project to relevant literature

    Conclusion:
  • Start with a brief restatement of the project and its impact or usefulness.
  • Briefly state next steps to extend, sustain the project or future related projects.

    Case Report

    A case report is a narrative report that describes, for medical, scientific, or educational purposes, a problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports should contribute knowledge, have educational value, or highlight the need to change clinical practice or diagnostic or prognostic approaches.  A case report should have strong “take-away" messages. Case reports may highlight:

    (a) unexpected or unusual presentations of trauma, (b) an unexpected event during trauma treatment, (c) findings that shed new light on trauma management. Case reports do not require IRB. Limit to 2,000 words, 25 references, and up to 3 figures or tables. Follow CARE or SCARE Guidelines (see references). We encourage authors to submit the CARE checklist with their article.

    JTN Case Report Consent Requirements: Identify whether the case is real or is a composite. Real case reports use actual patient data (deidentified) and must include patient/family's written permission.

    Composite reports merge descriptions that represent a patient population based on the author's experience but not on any one specific patient. Case composites do not contain patient data and therefore do not require patient permission. To write a case composite, identify a series of patients demonstrating the main focus; draw clinical material from each; blend the material to create a single, coherent narrative using deidentified demographic details. Note at the end of the case “This case is a composite of elements from different patients in the author's experience."

    Case Report Suggested Outline

    Title:          
  1. State main topic followed by the words “case report."

    Abstract:
  • Background: What is unique, educational; what does this case add to the literature?
  • Case Presentation: Mech of injury, signs, symptoms, complaints, workup, injuries, treatment, and outcomes. 
  • Conclusion: What is the main “take-away" lesson?

    Keywords:
  1. Include 5-7 keywords that identify the main topic (population, injury, intervention). Include case report as a keyword.

    Manuscript:

    Background:
    • One to two paragraphs summarizing why the case is unique (may include select references)
    • Describe the area of focus, relevant background, contextual knowledge
    • Why is the case different from what is already known (cite relevant literature), state the importance
    • End the background section with a statement acknowledging the reporting guidelines used.  State as: “This case report has been reported in line with the CARE criteria (include citation)."

      Case Presentation:
    • Provide de-identified demographic information (age, sex, ethnicity, occupation)
    • As appropriate, report body mass index, hand dominance, income, education, marital status
    • Describe the mode of presentation, mech of injury, EMS/Referring Hospital/ED patient-specific information, signs, symptoms, significant patient history, significant physical examination, clinical findings.

      Timeline:
  • Provide a timeline of care provided, use tables or figures to illustrate as needed.

    Diagnostics:
  • List labs, imaging, diagnostic challenges in the order received with reasoning, include the preliminary injury list

    Interventions: Describe surgical, radiological, pharmacologic treatment

    Outcomes:
  • List final injury list and injury severity
  • Final outcomes, follow-up diagnostic tests with results, intervention adherence
  • Complications, adverse or unanticipated events, hospital disposition, and follow up

    Discussion:
  • Scientific discussion of strength and limitations associated with this case report
  • Discuss and compare to relevant literature

    Conclusion:
  • State rationale for any conclusions
  • List the primary take-away lessons (without references) in a one-paragraph conclusion

    Patient Perspective
  • Where appropriate, include patient or family perspective on their treatment

    Informed Consent
  • Did the patient give informed consent? Include signed permission.  If this is a composite case report, state, “This case report is a composite of elements from different patients from the author's experience."

    Example Study:

    Marín, J., Pérez de Mendiola, X., Fernández, S., & Chart, J. P. (2021). Cannabis withdrawal induced brief psychotic disorder: a case study during the national lockdown secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic. J Addict Dis, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2021.1910473

    REFERENCES

    Gagnier, J. J., Kienle, G., Altman, D. G., Moher, D., Sox, H., Riley, D., & the, C. G. (2013). The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 7(1), 223. https://doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-7-223

    Gagnier, J. J., Kienle, G., Altman, D. G., Moher, D., Sox, H., & Riley, D. (2014). The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case report guideline development. J Clin Epidemiol, 67(1), 46-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.08.003

    Agha, R. A., Franchi, T., Sohrabi, C., Mathew, G., & Kerwan, A. (2020). The SCARE 2020 Guideline: Updating Consensus Surgical CAse REport (SCARE) Guidelines. Int J Surg, 84, 226-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020

    MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION

    Article Formatting Overview: Use Times New Roman 12-pt or Calibri 11-pt, double-space, do not insert line numbers, use one-inch margins, left side flush (even), right side unjustified (ragged). Indent paragraphs. Blind or mask author/institution names on initial submission. Number pages (top right corner) starting with the Abstract as page 1. Submit manuscript and tables in WORD file format. Submit figures in TIFF or JPEG file format. Format citations & references via APA 7th Ed.


Abbreviations​​
  • In general, abbreviations should be avoided.
  • Only use If helpful to the reader and if used at least four or more times.
  • Do not use in titles.
  • Limit or avoid use in the abstract.
  • Define on first use.
  • Do not begin a sentence with an abbreviation (spell out or reword).
  • Standard abbreviations like units of measure and states do not need to be defined.
  • Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations. Exception: Use periods when abbreviating United States (U.S.).
  • See Abbreviation Guide APA 7th, Ed
Abstract​
250 words maximum, no abbreviations, no references, no indentations
No information should be reported in the abstract that does not appear in the text of the manuscript.
Used structured, left-aligned headings in caps and bold, each on a new line, followed by colon and sentence. Example BACKGROUND:  Start your sentence on the same line after the colon.
APA FormatUse American Psychological Association (APA) format 7th Edition to format paper. See sample:  https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/professional-annotated.pdf
Authorship

Per ICMJE guidelines, to be eligible for authorship, all authors must meet four criteria:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work, ensuring that questions related to the accuracy, integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Bias ReductionThe following are general principles for writing about all people and their personal characteristics without bias.
BlindingConceal (highlight in black) any reference to authors or institution setting beyond the title page on initial manuscript submission. Please remove it after the paper is accepted.
Capitalization

Capitalize:

  • Racial and ethnic groups:  Black, Hispanic, White
  • Tests or scales: Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Nouns followed by numerals or letters: Figure 3, Days 7-9, Part A
  • Trauma center level: Level I or II trauma center

    Do not capitalize:
  • Hospital departments or units: pathology department, burn unit, etc.
  • Job titles or positions: respiratory therapist, nurse, surgeon, registrar
  • Disease or diagnosis: diabetes, leukemia, subdural hematoma
  • Procedures: intramedullary nailing, exploratory laparotomy
  • Treatments: massive blood transfusion protocol
Causal
Language
Use causal language (terms such as effect and efficacy) only for randomized clinical trials (RCT). For all other study designs, methods and results should be described in terms of association or correlation and should avoid cause-and-effect wording.
Citations
  • Use APA 7th edition citation format.
  • Cite primary (original) sources rather than secondary sources such as review articles, textbooks, or Wikipedia (seldom used in scholarly work)
  • Limit the number of citations to 3 or less when supporting a point
  • Cite the most recent, high quality, relevant articles
  • Ensure citation currency (within 7-10 years), unless of historic nature or landmark article
  • Ensure in-text citations are in the reference list (and vice versa)
  • List citations alphabetically with semicolons when multiple parenthetical citations listed
  • Avoid including the author's name at the beginning of the sentence, which ends with the author's citation. Eg avoid stating as:  "Smith performed a similar study using crash scene data (Smith, 2020)".
  • Where applicable, position citations precisely throughout the sentence for accuracy rather than listing all at the end of the sentence. Eg “Mild perioperative hypothermia causes surgical site infections (REF), coagulopathy and increased transfusion requirements (REF), delayed drug metabolism (REF; REF), and prolonged recovery, (REF).

APA 7th Ed Citation Format
Author TypeNarrative Citation
Beginning or Within Sentence
Parenthetical Citation
End of Sentence
One authorLuna (2020)(Luna, 2020)
Two authorsLuna and Chin (2020)(Luna & Chin, 2020)
Three or moreMartin et al. (2020)(Martin et al., 2020)

Group with abbrev
   First citation

   
   Ensuing citations

 
American Trauma Society (ATS, 2020)

ATS (2020)

 
(American Trauma Society [ATS], 2020)

(ATS, 2020)

Group without abbrevStanford University (2020)(Stanford University, 2020)
Color ChargeFigures or tables with color will automatically be published without color in the print version of the article but will appear with color in the article's online version, free of charge. If the author requests to print in color, there will be a charge to the author. The author will be sent a Color Work Agreement once the accepted paper moves to the production process. If the Color Work Agreement is not returned by the specified date, figures will be converted to black and white or grayscale for print publication.
Conflicts of
Interest Disclosure
Each author will be asked to provide a conflict-of-interest statement during the submission process.  See also 'Conflict of Interest' in the Editorial Policies section.  The corresponding author should confer with all other authors to confirm the final disclosure statement, which is listed on the title page.  This statement lists all authors' conflicts of interest, including financial, consultant, institutional, and other relationships that might lead to bias or a conflict of interest. If there is no conflict of interest, this should be explicitly stated. (See also Title Page)
Continuing Education Credits (Nursing)Continuing nursing education credits, called Nursing Continuing Professional Development (NCPD), use an outcomes-based (performance on posttest questions) CE model. Two articles are selected per Journal issue to provide NCPD credits for nurses. Exemplar articles include figures, lists, sidebars, charts, and tables. These include article types such as clinical review articles, translational research, evidence-based practice, practice guidelines, new laws or regulations, skills assessment, and critical assessment thinking, and pharmacology articles.
Copyright SymbolCopyright or trademark symbols are not used in academic papers.
Copyright Transfer
Agreement
Each author must complete and submit the journal's copyright transfer agreement (CTA). The corresponding author completes a CTA upon manuscript submission. Coauthors will automatically receive an email with instructions on completing the form upon submission. The article will not be published until all coauthors have submitted this form.
Cover LetterAll manuscripts should include a cover letter to the editor that includes the following:
1)  Confirm that the manuscript has been submitted solely to JTN and no other journal
2)  State that it has not been previously published
3)  Confirm that authors are responsible for all aspects of the research and writing process, including taking final responsibility for all aspects of the paper

Note if the study was or will be presented at a conference (name, date, place)
Data Timeliness4)  Research should be timely and based on data collected as recently as possible. The final data collection date for most research designs should be no more than five years before manuscript submission. Survey data should be current within the past two years.
DevicesWith the first mention of equipment device or software in the paper, provide in parentheses: the model and or version number, name of manufacturer, city, state, or country. Do not include trademark or copyright symbols. Do not include it in the reference list.
Drug NamesJTN uses generic drug names. State brand name once upon the first mention in the manuscript, as generic (brand) name. eg furosemide (Lasix).   

Figures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Figures include graphs, charts, drawings, maps, plots, and images (photographs)
  • Figures showcase comparisons or relationships between numbers, groups, or steps
  • Submit figures as TIFF, or JPEG file format with high-resolution at least 300 PPI
  • Start each figure on a separate page (do not embed within the text)
  • Place all figures/tables at the end of the manuscript after references and key points
  • The total number of figures and tables should not exceed 5
  • Submit extra figures as Supplemental Digital Content
  • Cite each figure within the text, in order first mentioned
  • Label each figure with a number and brief title (max 15 words)
  • Define all symbols, indicators (including error bars), line styles, and abbreviations in Note beneath even if previously defined in the text
  • Label each axis on a statistical graph with units of measurement
  • Express number as "n" and percentage as "%"  
  • Place items that are to be compared next to each other in similar size or scale
  • Submit multi-part figures parts (A, B, C) as one figure
  • Ensure copyright attribution to all or parts of a figure being reprinted or adapted and submit a copy of the written permission with the manuscript
  • For further instructions, see 5 Steps to Creating Digital Artwork.
  • See APA figure formatting and examples at:

    https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/tables-figures/figures
File
Formats
  • Submit manuscript text and tables in WORD (without highlighting or track changes)  
  • Submit figures as TIFF or JPG file format using a minimum of 300 dpi
  • Do not submit PDF's or spreadsheets

    Submit the manuscript in separate files: title page; main text file; figures and tables
Font
  • Use Times New Roman 12-point or Calibri 11-point
Heading
Levels
  • JTN encourages succinct, clear headings and subheadings as they aid reader comprehension
  • Heading use varies and is dependent on the paper length and complexity
  • Level 1. All caps, bold, centered.
  • Level 2. Title case, bold, flush left.
  • Level 3. Title case, bold, flush left, in italics. 

    See: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/headings
Hospital
Name
  • Rather than including the hospital's name within the text, JTN prefers a descriptive reference to the hospital setting. Rather than stating "...admissions from Detroit Receiving Hospital". JTN prefers "admissions from an urban, academic, Midwest Level I trauma center."
 
Hyphens

 • Use hyphens to join words or parts of words.

  • Hyphen use varies and changes over time; check use with the current online dictionary https://www.merriam-webster.com
  • Use a hyphen with two-word numbers “twenty-one, thirty-three."
  • Use hyphens with numbers only when used as compound adjectives describing nouns (“Joe handed me a 15-foot pole", “Nurses work 12-hour shifts".
Inclusive
Language
JTN supports the use of inclusive, bias-free language. Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about any reader's beliefs or commitments, should contain nothing that might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture, or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance, by using 'he or she' instead of 'he' or 'his' and making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (eg 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman.' For more detail see: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/bias-free-language/general-principles
InquiriesThe editor welcomes author inquiries. Send to Judy Mikhail, PhD, MBA, RN, Editor-in-Chief at [email protected].
International
Literature
JTN is an international scholarly journal. JTN favors articles that use current, global trauma literature relevant to high functioning trauma centers. Authors should explain policies, practices, and terms specific to a particular country and outline the paper's relevance to an international trauma audience. The literature review, discussion, interpretation, and comparison of findings should include relevant global trauma references.
Institutional
Review Board
(IRB)
All studies of human subjects (research and quality improvement studies) must contain a statement in the Methods section that institutional review board (IRB) or independent ethics review committee approval was obtained or exemption was granted. Include the organization name of the IRB or ethics review committee in the statement (number not required). The IRB statement is required before it will be sent for peer review as per the ICMJE. The determination comes from the IRB, not the author or other entities. The author may be asked to produce the IRB by the editor. (See also Ethical Approval and Informed Consent)
Key Points
  • List 3-5 bullet points that capture the key, novel aspects of your study.
  • They will be displayed in a call-out box within the article for impact.
  • Example Format:
  1. The current state of ____[insert topic] indicates ______.
  2. The main finding of this paper is______.
  3. Key implications for trauma practice from this study are _________________.
  • State concisely; may be stated as sentence fragments (strive for a max of 100 characters without spaces, each)
  • Place Key Points on its own page, at the end of the manuscript, after the references.
Keywords
  • Identify 5 to 7 keywords or phrases that best describe the content of the manuscript.
  • These are the search terms readers are likely to use when looking for articles on the topic.
  • Select keywords from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used by the National Library of Medicine to index PubMed. An online search tool for MeSH headings is available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html 
  • Review similar articles to identify MeSH terms commonly associated with the topic.
  • List the keywords at the bottom of the abstract, in alphabetical order, in lowercase, separated by commas, avoid abbreviations, use North American spelling.
Language Editing ServicesJTN requires manuscripts to meet standards of English language used for professional publication. Wolters Kluwer, in partnership with Editage, offers language editing services to help you prepare a manuscript.
LengthManuscript length (page or word count) includes the abstract, text, and references. It does not include tables and figures. Accepted length varies by article type. (See also Article Types).
MarginsUse one-inch margins on all sides. Left flush (even) and right unjustified (ragged).
Numbers
  • Spell numbers nine and below, use numerals for 10 and above. “The study included 55 patients, and five patients died"
  • Exceptions, express as numerals in the following situations:  
  • Preceding a unit of measurement: "a 5-mg dose", "…with 3.5 cm of"
  • Math expression: "divided by 5", "3 times as", "more than 5%" "0.33 of"
  • Representing time, dates, ages, scores, points on a scale: “3 days, 6 months, 12:30   

          a.m., 2-year-olds, ages 5-25 years, scored 4 on a 7-point scale."
  • Use hyphens with two-word numbers “twenty-one, thirty-three."
  • Use hyphens with numbers only when used as compound adjectives describing nouns (“Joe handed me a 15-foot pole", “Nurses work 12-hour shifts", “the eighteen-inch monitor is too big for my desk."
  • Do not repeat measurement units when expressing a range (90-100 mmHg)
  • Do not repeat units when expressing multiple amounts (0.3, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/dl)
  • Do repeat the % symbol when reporting a range of percentages: eg 18%-20%
  • Use commas in numbers of 1,000 or more
  • Do not start a sentence with a numeral; spell out or reword the sentence
  • Insert a space between number and unit of measurement "4.5 m, 6 hr"
  • Only use add-ons (st, nd, rd, th) with numbers when they precede the month “Their party was on the 12th of August"
  • General guidelines for methods to present numbers include:
  • If you need to present three or fewer numbers, first try using a sentence
  • If you need to present four to 20 numbers, first try using a table
  • If you need to present more than 20 numbers, first try using a figure

See APA Numbers and Statistics Guide for more information

Open AccessAuthors of accepted peer-reviewed articles have the choice to pay a fee to allow perpetual, unrestricted online access to their published article to readers globally immediately upon publication. (See also Publication Phases: Publication)
ORCIDThe ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a unique, 16-digit author identifier that enable automatic linkages between the researcher and their scholarly activities. The number distinguishes you from other researchers, even those with similar names. JTN encourages the submitting author to provide an ORCID iD when submitting a manuscript which takes around 2 minutes to register.
Order of
Manuscript
Cover Letter
Title page (new page)
Abstract (new page)
Manuscript (new page)
1.   Background
2.   Objective(s)
3.   Methods
4.   Results
5.   Discussion
6.   Limitations
7.   Conclusions
8.   References (new page)
9.   Key Points (new page)
10. Tables (new page each)
11. Figures (new page each)
12. Supplemental Digital Content (new page each)
Page NumbersInsert page numbers in the header, top right, starting with Abstract as page 1.
ParagraphsIndent all paragraphs (tab 0.5) except in the abstract
Center each paragraph around one main idea or single topic
Aim for ≈3-6 sentences per paragraph or 2-3 paragraphs per double spaced page
Paraphrasing
  • Paraphrasing restates another's idea (or your own prior published idea) in your own words.
  • Provide credit to the source with a citation and reference whenever you paraphrase.
  • A paraphrase may continue for several sentences.
  • Cite the paraphrased work on first mention.
  • Once the work has been cited, it is unnecessary to repeat the citation if the writing makes it clear that the same work continues to be paraphrased.
  • If the paraphrase continues into a new paragraph, reintroduce the citation.
  • Quotes are rarely used in academic writing. Paraphrase and cite rather than quote.
Patient
Confidentiality
  • To avoid compromising patient privacy and confidentiality, all patient information included in manuscripts, tables, or figures must be de-identified.
  • Only those details essential for understanding and interpreting a specific case report or case series should be provided. (See also Editorial Ethics Policy)
Permissions
  • Permission is required for the use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web). The author is responsible for providing written permission for figures or tables borrowed, modified, or adapted from copyrighted materials (including the author's own previous work) and for direct quotations longer than 75 words.
Person

In the active voice, the subject does the acting; in the passive voice, the subject is acted on. In general, authors should use the active Voice.
Examples:
Passive: A randomization list was generated by an independent statistician.
Active:  An independent statistician generated a randomization list.
Passive: Data were collected from 5000 patients by physicians.
Active: Physicians collected data from 5000 patients.
Passive: Baseline clinical features and a throat swab were obtained.
Active: Study clinicians obtained baseline clinical features and a throat swab.

While current academic writing encourages active Voice, the use of first-person “I, we"  
sentences should be used judiciously. Reword sentences where possible to avoid overuse.
(See also Voice)

Personal Communications
  • Cite personal communications with author name, date in the text, do not include in the references. Eg parenthetical citation: (B.Smith, personal communication, April 29, 2020)

    Authors must obtain permission from the individual to cite personal communications.
Photographic
Consent
  • Photographs of identifiable persons, whether patients or staff, must be accompanied by signed releases, such as the following: "I hereby give [author's name] permission to use the photograph of [subject's name] in the Journal of Trauma Nursing.
PlagiarismAll manuscripts undergo review via plagiarism-detection software prior to acceptance. To avoid plagiarism, always paraphrase (restate in your own words) and cite original authors to give credit. This includes your own previously published work to avoid self-plagiarism.
Punctuation
  • Use one space after the period at the end of a sentence.
  • Use commas to separate ideas or elements within a sentence “height, width, and depth."
  • Use a colon to introduce a list. “I have three brothers: David, Kent, and Jacob."
  • Use a semicolon between related but distinct thoughts. “I bought a new car; it is blue."
  • Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by, however, therefore, then, or finally

    “The patients read the brochure; however, they had difficulties with recall."
  • Avoid the use of the slash sign in academic writing.  Do not use and/or. Simply state as or.
  • Use hyphens to join words or parts of words. Hyphen use is varied, changes over time, and should be checked with the current dictionary https://www.merriam-webster.com
Preferred
Terminology
  • Use advanced practitioners rather than midlevel practitioners
  • Use a descriptive reference to the hospital rather than the actual hospital name, unless necessary. For example, rather than stating "...admissions from Detroit Receiving Hospital." JTN prefers "...admissions from an urban, academic, Midwest Level I trauma center."
  • Use emergency department rather than emergency room
  • Use evidence-based rather than evidenced-based
  • Use health care rather than healthcare or health-care
  • Use Level I or II trauma center rather than: level one or two, level 1 or 2
  • Use motor vehicle crash rather than: accident, collision, road traffic injuries
Quotes
  • Quotes are rarely used in academic writing. Paraphrase and cite rather than quote.
Race and
Ethnic Identity
  • Race refers to physical differences that groups and cultures consider socially significant. For example, people might identify their race as Aboriginal, African American, Black, Asian, European American, White, Native American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Māori, or some other race.
  • Ethnicity refers to shared cultural characteristics such as language, ancestry, practices, and beliefs. For example, people might identify as Latino or another ethnicity.
  • Be clear about whether you are referring to a racial group or an ethnic group.
  • Race is a social construct that is not universal, so one must be careful not to impose racial labels on ethnic groups.
  • Capitalize names of racial and ethnic groups: eg Black, Hispanic, White. See: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/bias-free-language/racial-ethnic-minorities
References
  • References should strive to be current within 5-10 years, unless of historical importance.
  • Begin the reference list on a new page, following the end of the main text
  • List references in alphabetical order by author (not numbered), double space, use hanging indents (first line, flush left, subsequent lines indented).
  • Express article title in sentence (lower) case.
  • Journal titles should be written in full (no abbreviations).
  • Express the journal title in italics.
  • Include the DOI or URL (permanent link) to electronic articles) whenever possible. DOI reporting format has changed over time. Please standardize your references using the current DOI reporting format: https://doi.org/XXXX
  • When an online work is continuously updated and the versions are not archived, use "n.d." as the year of publication and include a retrieval date
  • References with 2-20 authors use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name

    “Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., & Author, E. E."
  • For references with 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand), and add the final author's name.
  • For references that combine individual and group authors, list the individual names first, followed by "& the members of xx group."
  • For articles originally published in a language other than English, write the reference in the original language. Insert after the title an English translation of the title in square brackets.
  • Check citation accuracy against those listed in PubMed single citation matcher:  

    See: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query/static/citmatch.html
    See: Quick Reference Guide, APA Style 7th Edition.
    See: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples
     

    REFERENCE EXAMPLES

    Journal Article
    Cahill, A., Pearcy, C., Agrawal, V., Sladek, P., & Truitt, M. S. (2017). Delirium in the ICU: What About the Floor? J Trauma Nurs24(4), 242-244.

        https://doi.org/10.1097/jtn.0000000000000298

    Journal Article Published in Another Language
    Hora, E. C., & Sousa, R. M. C. (2009). Adaptação transcultural do instrumento family needs questionnaire [Cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument “Family Needs Questionnaire"]. Revista Latino Americana de Enfermagem17, 541–547.

    Book
    Li, G., & Baker, S. P. (Eds.). (2012). Injury Research: Theories, Methods, and Approaches. Springer.

    Chapter in Edited Book

    Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.

    Website

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (nd). Hypertension in adults: Diagnosis and management (NICE Guideline NG136).

        https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng136
Reporting
Guidelines

JTN endorses the use of EQUATOR Network Reporting Guidelines to maintain standards of quality reporting and to ensure transparency and reproducibility.
A reporting guideline is a tool to assist authors when preparing manuscripts and reviewers when reviewing an article.
Follow the reporting guideline that most closely matches your study design
Not all manuscripts will have a corresponding guideline.
Authors are encouraged to submit a guideline checklist with their manuscript.

  • Clinical Practice Guidelines use AGREE
  • Case Report use CARE
  • Cost-Effectiveness use CHEERS
  • Randomized Control Trials use CONSORT
  • Meta-analysis Observational studies use MOOSE
  • Systematic Reviews/Meta-Analyses use PRISMA
  • Scoping Reviews use PRISMA ScR
  • Statistics Reporting use SAMPL
  • Quality Improvement use SQUIRE2.0
  • Educational Improvement use SQUIRE-EDU
  • Qualitative Studies use SRQR/COREQ
  • Diagnostic/Prognostic Studies use STARD
  • Observational Studies use STROBE
  • Reporting of Interventions use TIDieR
  • Non-Randomized Studies use TREND
  • Integrative Review use Whittemore & Knafl (2005) J Adv Nur, 52(5):546

    Survey Research use AAPOR Standardshttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069
Sample Size
Calculation
For randomized trials, a statement of the power or sample size calculation is required (see the EQUATOR Network CONSORT Guidelines). A power calculation is not generally required for observational studies that use an established population when the sample size is fixed. However, if the researchers determined the sample size through sampling or matching, there should be some justification for the number sampled. Describe power and sample size calculations at the beginning of the Statistical Methods section, following the general description of the study population.
Sentence

Sentences should be short, simple, and direct. Break compound sentences into simple sentences.

  • Do not start sentences with a numeral or abbreviation. Spell out or reword.
SpacingDouble-space the paper and references. Include only one space after periods.
Do not add blank lines before or after headings or between paragraphs.
Spelling
Statistics

Present numerical results (eg, absolute numbers or rates) with appropriate indicators of uncertainty, such as confidence intervals. In general, report numbers rounded to two decimal places. Use means and standard deviations (SDs) for normally distributed data and medians and ranges or interquartile ranges (IQRs) for data that are not normally distributed.

  • Include sufficient information to allow readers to understand the analyses
  • Make clear the statistical test used for each section of the analysis
  • Do not start a sentence with a numeral, rather spell out or reword.
  • Express statistical symbols in italics. Eg n, M, SD, df, t, F, p
  • Include a space between symbols and numerals
  • Use lowercase to express: n for sample size and p value.
  • Report total sample and group sizes. eg A total of 150 patients were studied, of which 90 (60%) were in the pre-intervention group versus 60 (40%) in the post-intervention group.
  • Express percentages as n (%). Make numerator and denominator readily apparent to the reader. Eg Of 255 frail patients, 179 (70.2%) were women.
  • As a rule of thumb, when the number of the denominator is less than 100, it is better to report percentages only as a whole number. Eg We observed acute graft rejection in 18 (25%) of 73 transplant recipients.
  • Do not report percentages when the sample size is less than 30; report actual numbers. Instead of "Of 15 patients studied, 26.67% presented with fever," write as, "Four of 15 patients presented with fever."
  • Repeat the % symbol when reporting a range of percentages: eg 18%-20%.
  • Express normally distributed data as mean and standard deviation to one decimal place; express as M = x.x, SD = x.x; or M (SD), Not as M + SD.
  • Express non-normally distributed data as median and interquartile range to one decimal place; express as Mdn = xx.x (IQR xx-xx)
  • Express confidence intervals to 2 decimal places as: % CI, lower limit, upper limit. eg (95% CI, 1.30,13.51)
  • Report point estimates with CI rather than values alone. eg (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.08, 3.09, p = .03)
  • To minimize repetition of data already in tables, consider reporting the degree of the difference
  • eg “Group A had systolic blood pressure that was on average 4.5 mm Hg higher (95% CI, 3.2,5.8) than group B (= .002)
  • Total cholesterol concentrations were 19% higher in Group A compared with Group B (p = .012)
  • Use semicolons and brackets as needed to separate sets of statistics that already contain commas and parenthesis. eg (age, M = 34.5 years, 95% CI [29.4, 39.6]; years of education, M = 10.4 [8.7, 12.1]; and weekly income, M = $612 [522, 702]).
  • Decimal Places: Report most statistics (correlations, proportions, inferential statistics, exact p values) to two decimal places; but means, standard deviations, medians, IQR to one place
  • Leading Zero: Use a zero before the decimal point for most statistics (except values & correlations)
  • State the significance threshold (the p value used as a cutoff of determining significance) in the Methods section.   Ex." The significance threshold was set at .05".
  • Specify the statistical software program and version, company, location used in the Methods

    Section eg “Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY). 

    See APA Numbers and Statistics Guide

    See Statistical Analysis and Methods in the Published Literature SAMPL Guidelines

    P Values

    values alone fail to convey the strength or size of an effect, change, or relationship.

    The value should never be presented alone without the data that are being compared.

    p values should follow the report of comparisons of absolute numbers or rates along with a measure of uncertainty (eg, 0.8%, 95% CI [0.2,1.8]; p = .13).

    Report exact p values. If the exact value is less than .001, then report as "<.001

    Express the p value as lowercase, in italics, without a leading zero and no hyphen between "p" and "value."

    Example statistical statements:
  • We observed graft rejection in 18 (24.66%) of 73 transplant recipients
  • Frail patients were older than nonfrail patients (mean [SD], 79.2 [12.1] years versus 66.2 [11.9] years, respectively; p < .001)
  • Complications in FTR cases occurred earlier than in non-FTR cases (median 2 days [IQR
  • days] versus 4 days [IQR 2-8 days], p < .001)
  • The median (IQR) serum cholesterol level was 140 (120-250) mg/dL
  • Younger patients had lower odds of death (OR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79,0.94; = .002)
  • There was a positive correlation between height and weight, r = 0.985, = .02
  • The main effect was significant, F(1,149) = 2.12, p = .02."
  • Younger teens woke up earlier (M = 7:30, SD = .45) than teens in general, t(33) = 2.10, p = 0.31
  • Younger teens indicated a significant preference for video games (M = 7.45, SD = 2.51) than books (M = 4.22, SD = 2.23), t(15) = 4.00, p < .001
  • The two sets of exam results are strongly correlated, r(55) = .49, p < .001.
Supplemental Digital Content (SDC)
  • Supplemental Digital Content (SDC) are extra (tables, graphs, audio, video, etc.)
  • SDC are available in online articles by clicking a URL.
  • Cite SDC consecutively in the text, as [material type, SDC number, description].
  • eg "We performed tests on elbow flexibility (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, which demonstrates the degrees of flexibility in the elbow) and found our results inconclusive."
  • Submit a list of SDC at the end of the manuscript file, following tables and figures, include SDC number and file type.
  • SDC is posted as submitted without editing by the journal. SDC files should be no larger than 10 MB each. For a list of available file types and detailed instructions, please see: http://links.lww.com/A142
Surveys
  • Surveys should report data collected within the past two years
  • IRB is required for most surveys
  • Include characterization of nonresponders
  • Report the survey outcomes using standard definitions and metrics (AAPOR).
  • Submit the survey questions as a figure or supplemental digital content.

    (See also Reporting Guidelines)
Tables
  • Tables are characterized by a row-column structure to display numbers
  • Tables should be self-contained and complement, not duplicate, information in the text
  • Submit tables as editable text in Word, do not submit as images pasted into Word.
  • Start each table on a separate page (do not embed within the text)
  • Place all tables and figures at the end of the manuscript, after references and key points
  • The total number of tables and figures combined should not exceed 5
  • Submit tables over eight columns and or 40 rows as Supplemental Digital Content
  • Submit extra tables as Supplemental Digital Content
  • Cite each table within the text in the order first mentioned.
  • Label tables with a number and short descriptive title max 15 words.
  • Define abbreviations in Note beneath, even if previously defined in the text.
  • Do not include references within or under tables.  If you feel the need to reference a table, you need to obtain permission from the author to reprint their work.  State in Note underneath table reprinted or adapted with permission.  Example: From Killen, A. & Macaskill, A. (2015). Using a gratitude intervention to enhance well-being in older adults. Journal of Happiness Studies16(4), 955. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9542-3). Copyright 2014 by Springer Science & Business Media Dordrecht. Reprinted with permission.
  • Tables may use 10- or 11-point font, with 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 spacing
  • Label all axes, elements, and units of measurement within tables
  • Place major independent variables in the left-most column
  • Column headings and subheadings should delineate subcategories.
  • When possible, list data in separate columns: n, %, CI, M, SD, point estimate, P
  • Express number as n and percentage as (%)
  • When category percentages do not sum to 100%, explain the reason in a brief note underneath
  • Increase table white space by minimizing internal gridlines and remove all background shading

    • See APA table formatting and examples at:

    https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/tables-figures/tables
TenseUse past tense when possible and stay consistent for background, methods, and results.
Use present tense for discussion, limitations, and conclusions.
See APA tense at https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/grammar/verb-tense
Title
  • The title should be descriptive and concise, strive for < 15 words; place the main topic in the first half of the title to optimize indexing
  • Do not state as a question.
  • Do not include abbreviations 
  • Do not reveal the study findings
  • Trauma center type and level should only be included in the title if the intent is to compare care across levels.  
  • The title should include country names if the content is narrowly country-specific (non-generalizable) to contemporary North American trauma care. (See also Manuscript Sections).
Title Page

The title page provides critical information and includes ten items (as applicable):

  1. Running Head. Abbreviated title <6 words, capitalized, in header left side
  2. Title. List full manuscript title, in title case, centered
  3. Author List. List authors, credentials, and affiliations, ORCID #, and Email
    1. List first name, middle initial, and last name of each author
    2. List author credentials (academic degrees, certification, licensure) at the time of the study, in the following order;

                                                    i.     highest academic credential (eg MSN),
                                                   ii.     licensure (eg RN),
                                                  iii.     certifications (eg TCRN).
                                                  iv.     Do not list honorary eg (FAAN) or candidacy credentials PhD(c).

    1. List institutional affiliation at the time the study was performed as

                                                    i.     Department, institution, location

    1. List authors ORCID number, Twitter handle, and Email (if available)
  1. Corresponding Author. List name, address, phone, and email address
  2. Author Changes. Indicate recent author changes in degree, title, or affiliation. eg, Author XX is now Trauma Program Manager at XX Trauma Center.
  3. Conference. Indicate if the material was previously presented or will be presented at an upcoming conference. List conference title, date, and location. 
  4. Conflicts of Interest Funding Sources. State all possible perceived conflicts of interest, including financial, consultant, institutional, or other relationships that may lead to bias or a conflict of interest. List a disclosure statement for each author; or if all authors have nothing to declare, state explicitly as: “The authors have no conflicts of interest or funding to declare."

Example statements:
This research was supported by a grant from XX Institution (grant # AB576)
Author XX owns stock in XX company
Author XX is currently receiving (grant #XX) from Organization XX
Author XX has received consulting fees from XX, a company that manufactures a 
competing product to the one discussed in this paper.

  1. Overlapping Publications or Preprints. Indicate whether the manuscript overlaps substantially with previously published work or work submitted elsewhere, including preprints. Submit a copy of the related material to the editor upon submission with an explanation. (See also Previously Published Materia)
  2. Data Analysis Responsibility. For manuscripts containing data, list one or two authors responsible for the data analysis. State as: Author X and XX "had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis." If the individual(s) who conducted the analysis are not listed as authors, list them in acknowledgments and describe their involvement with the data analysis. (See also Data Policy)
  3. Acknowledgments.  List those individuals who made significant contributions to the study but who do not meet authorship criteria. Authors must have the individual's permission to be acknowledged.

Example acknowledgment statements:
- We thank the participating patients and staff of the XX Unit at XX center.
- We thank XX for assistance with the literature search strategy.
- The authors acknowledge the contribution of the participating trauma surgeons and
trauma program managers, and trauma registrars of the XXX Collaborative.

TransitionsBuild a cohesive text using transition words to link sentences and paragraphs.
For a list of examples, see APA 7th Transitions Guide
Units of MeasureJTN uses the International System of Units (SI).
Use the metric system for all measurements.
Where U.S. measurements must be used, include metric equivalents in parentheses. Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius. Blood pressure in millimeters of mercury.
Voice
  • Use active Voice when possible to create direct, clear, concise sentences.
  • Active Voice (subject, verb, object) or (who, did, what) "students completed surveys."
  • Passive Voice (object, verb, subject "surveys were completed by students."
Writing Style
  • Write to the level of an experienced trauma clinician, using scientific American English.
  • Readability is a factor in the acceptance of all papers; strive to enlighten, not to impress.
  • Avoid medical jargon, unnecessary wordiness, and overlong sentences and paragraphs
  • Present ideas in a direct, straightforward, simple declarative sentences, using active Voice.
  • Clarity if your responsibility, not the readers.
  • The editorial office reserves the right to modify text for readability during copyediting.
  • The abstract is of critical importance as it is often the only thing that gets read.
  • Articles are frequently rejected based on the abstract alone. 
  • Readers often decide if the rest of the article is worth reading based on the abstract. ​


Abbreviations
  • In general, abbreviations should be avoided.
  • Only use If helpful to the reader and if used at least four or more times.
  • Do not use in titles.
  • Limit or avoid use in the abstract.
  • Define on first use.
  • Do not begin a sentence with an abbreviation (spell out or reword).
  • Standard abbreviations like units of measure and states do not need to be defined.
  • Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations. Exception: Use periods when abbreviating United States (U.S.).
  • See Abbreviation Guide APA 7th, Ed

Abstract
250 words maximum, no abbreviations, no references, no indentations
No information should be reported in the abstract that does not appear in the text of the manuscript.
Used structured, left-aligned headings in caps and bold, each on a new line, followed by colon and sentence. Example BACKGROUND:  Start your sentence on the same line after the colon.
APA FormatUse American Psychological Association (APA) format 7th Edition to format paper. See sample:  https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/professional-annotated.pdf
Authorship

Per ICMJE guidelines, to be eligible for authorship, all authors must meet four criteria:

  1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work, ensuring that questions related to the accuracy, integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Bias Reduction The following are general principles for writing about all people and their personal characteristics without bias.
BlindingConceal (highlight in black) any reference to authors or institution setting beyond the title page on initial manuscript submission. Please remove it after the paper is accepted.
Capitalization

Capitalize:

  • Racial and ethnic groups:  Black, Hispanic, White
  • Tests or scales: Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale
  • Nouns followed by numerals or letters: Figure 3, Days 7-9, Part A
  • Trauma center level: Level I or II trauma center

    Do not capitalize:
  • Hospital departments or units: pathology department, burn unit, etc.
  • Job titles or positions: respiratory therapist, nurse, surgeon, registrar
  • Disease or diagnosis: diabetes, leukemia, subdural hematoma
  • Procedures: intramedullary nailing, exploratory laparotomy
  • Treatments: massive blood transfusion protocol

     
Causal
Language
Use causal language (terms such as effect and efficacy) only for randomized clinical trials (RCT). For all other study designs, methods and results should be described in terms of association or correlation and should avoid cause-and-effect wording.
  
Citations
  • Use APA 7th edition citation format.
  • Cite primary (original) sources rather than secondary sources such as review articles, textbooks, or Wikipedia (seldom used in scholarly work)
  • Limit the number of citations to 3 or less when supporting a point
  • Cite the most recent, high quality, relevant articles
  • Ensure citation currency (within 7-10 years), unless of historic nature or landmark article
  • Ensure in-text citations are in the reference list (and vice versa)
  • List citations alphabetically with semicolons when multiple parenthetical citations listed
  • Avoid including the author's name at the beginning of the sentence, which ends with the author's citation. Eg avoid stating as:  "Smith performed a similar study using crash scene data (Smith, 2020)".
  • Where applicable, position citations precisely throughout the sentence for accuracy rather than listing all at the end of the sentence. Eg “Mild perioperative hypothermia causes surgical site infections (REF), coagulopathy and increased transfusion requirements (REF), delayed drug metabolism (REF; REF), and prolonged recovery, (REF).

     
APA 7th Ed Citation Format
Author TypeNarrative Citation
Beginning or Within Sentence
Parenthetical Citation
End of Sentence
 
One authorLuna (2020) (Luna, 2020) 
Two authorsLuna and Chin (2020)(Luna & Chin, 2020) 
Three or moreMartin et al. (2020) (Martin et al., 2020) 

Group with abbrev
   First citation

   
   Ensuing citations

 
American Trauma Society (ATS, 2020)

ATS (2020)

 
(American Trauma Society [ATS], 2020)

(ATS, 2020)

 
Group without abbrevStanford University (2020)(Stanford University, 2020) 
  
Color ChargeFigures or tables with color will automatically be published without color in the print version of the article but will appear with color in the article's online version, free of charge. If the author requests to print in color, there will be a charge to the author. The author will be sent a Color Work Agreement once the accepted paper moves to the production process. If the Color Work Agreement is not returned by the specified date, figures will be converted to black and white or grayscale for print publication.
  
Conflicts of
Interest Disclosure
Each author will be asked to provide a conflict-of-interest statement during the submission process.  See also 'Conflict of Interest' in the Editorial Policies section.  The corresponding author should confer with all other authors to confirm the final disclosure statement, which is listed on the title page.  This statement lists all authors' conflicts of interest, including financial, consultant, institutional, and other relationships that might lead to bias or a conflict of interest. If there is no conflict of interest, this should be explicitly stated. (See also Title Page)
  
Continuing Education Credits (Nursing)Continuing nursing education credits, called Nursing Continuing Professional Development (NCPD), use an outcomes-based (performance on posttest questions) CE model. Two articles are selected per Journal issue to provide NCPD credits for nurses. Exemplar articles include figures, lists, sidebars, charts, and tables. These include article types such as clinical review articles, translational research, evidence-based practice, practice guidelines, new laws or regulations, skills assessment, and critical assessment thinking, and pharmacology articles.
  
Copyright SymbolCopyright or trademark symbols are not used in academic papers.
  
Copyright Transfer
Agreement
Each author must complete and submit the journal's copyright transfer agreement (CTA). The corresponding author completes a CTA upon manuscript submission. Coauthors will automatically receive an email with instructions on completing the form upon submission. The article will not be published until all coauthors have submitted this form.
  
Cover LetterAll manuscripts should include a cover letter to the editor that includes the following:
1)  Confirm that the manuscript has been submitted solely to JTN and no other journal
2)  State that it has not been previously published
3)  Confirm that authors are responsible for all aspects of the research and writing process, including taking final responsibility for all aspects of the paper

Note if the study was or will be presented at a conference (name, date, place)
  
Data Timeliness 4)  Research should be timely and based on data collected as recently as possible. The final data collection date for most research designs should be no more than five years before manuscript submission. Survey data should be current within the past two years.
  
DevicesWith the first mention of equipment device or software in the paper, provide in parentheses: the model and or version number, name of manufacturer, city, state, or country. Do not include trademark or copyright symbols. Do not include it in the reference list.
  
Drug NamesJTN uses generic drug names. State brand name once upon the first mention in the manuscript, as generic (brand) name. eg furosemide (Lasix).   
  

Figures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Figures include graphs, charts, drawings, maps, plots, and images (photographs)
  • Figures showcase comparisons or relationships between numbers, groups, or steps
  • Submit figures as TIFF, or JPEG file format with high-resolution at least 300 PPI
  • Start each figure on a separate page (do not embed within the text)
  • Place all figures/tables at the end of the manuscript after references and key points
  • The total number of figures and tables should not exceed 5
  • Submit extra figures as Supplemental Digital Content
  • Cite each figure within the text, in order first mentioned
  • Label each figure with a number and brief title (max 15 words)
  • Define all symbols, indicators (including error bars), line styles, and abbreviations in Note beneath even if previously defined in the text
  • Label each axis on a statistical graph with units of measurement
  • Express number as "n" and percentage as "%"  
  • Place items that are to be compared next to each other in similar size or scale
  • Submit multi-part figures parts (A, B, C) as one figure
  • Ensure copyright attribution to all or parts of a figure being reprinted or adapted and submit a copy of the written permission with the manuscript
  • For further instructions, see 5 Steps to Creating Digital Artwork.
  • See APA figure formatting and examples at:

    https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/tables-figures/figures
  
File
Formats
  • Submit manuscript text and tables in WORD (without highlighting or track changes)  
  • Submit figures as TIFF or JPG file format using a minimum of 300 dpi
  • Do not submit PDF's or spreadsheets

    Submit the manuscript in separate files: title page; main text file; figures and tables
  
Font
  • Use Times New Roman 12-point or Calibri 11-point
  
Heading
Levels
  • JTN encourages succinct, clear headings and subheadings as they aid reader comprehension
  • Heading use varies and is dependent on the paper length and complexity
  • Level 1. All caps, bold, centered.
  • Level 2. Title case, bold, flush left.
  • Level 3. Title case, bold, flush left, in italics. 

    See: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/headings
  
Hospital
Name
  • Rather than including the hospital's name within the text, JTN prefers a descriptive reference to the hospital setting. Rather than stating "...admissions from Detroit Receiving Hospital". JTN prefers "admissions from an urban, academic, Midwest Level I trauma center."
 
Hyphens

 
• Use hyphens to join words or parts of words.

  • Hyphen use varies and changes over time; check use with the current online dictionary https://www.merriam-webster.com
  • Use a hyphen with two-word numbers “twenty-one, thirty-three."
  • Use hyphens with numbers only when used as compound adjectives describing nouns (“Joe handed me a 15-foot pole", “Nurses work 12-hour shifts".
Inclusive
Language
JTN supports the use of inclusive, bias-free language. Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about any reader's beliefs or commitments, should contain nothing that might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture, or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance, by using 'he or she' instead of 'he' or 'his' and making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (eg 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman.' For more detail see: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/bias-free-language/general-principles
  
InquiriesThe editor welcomes author inquiries. Send to Judy Mikhail, PhD, MBA, RN, Editor-in-Chief at [email protected].
  
International
Literature
JTN is an international scholarly journal. JTN favors articles that use current, global trauma literature relevant to high functioning trauma centers. Authors should explain policies, practices, and terms specific to a particular country and outline the paper's relevance to an international trauma audience. The literature review, discussion, interpretation, and comparison of findings should include relevant global trauma references.
  
Institutional
Review Board
(IRB)
All studies of human subjects (research and quality improvement studies) must contain a statement in the Methods section that institutional review board (IRB) or independent ethics review committee approval was obtained or exemption was granted. Include the organization name of the IRB or ethics review committee in the statement (number not required). The IRB statement is required before it will be sent for peer review as per the ICMJE. The determination comes from the IRB, not the author or other entities. The author may be asked to produce the IRB by the editor. (See also Ethical Approval and Informed Consent)
  
Key Points
  • List 3-5 bullet points that capture the key, novel aspects of your study.
  • They will be displayed in a call-out box within the article for impact.
  • Example Format:
  1. The current state of ____[insert topic] indicates ______.
  2. The main finding of this paper is______.
  3. Key implications for trauma practice from this study are _________________.
  • State concisely; may be stated as sentence fragments (strive for a max of 100 characters without spaces, each)
  • Place Key Points on its own page, at the end of the manuscript, after the references.

  
Keywords
  • Identify 5 to 7 keywords or phrases that best describe the content of the manuscript.
  • These are the search terms readers are likely to use when looking for articles on the topic.
  • Select keywords from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) used by the National Library of Medicine to index PubMed. An online search tool for MeSH headings is available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html 
  • Review similar articles to identify MeSH terms commonly associated with the topic.
  • List the keywords at the bottom of the abstract, in alphabetical order, in lowercase, separated by commas, avoid abbreviations, use North American spelling.
  
Language Editing ServicesJTN requires manuscripts to meet standards of English language used for professional publication. Wolters Kluwer, in partnership with Editage, offers language editing services to help you prepare a manuscript.
  
LengthManuscript length (page or word count) includes the abstract, text, and references. It does not include tables and figures. Accepted length varies by article type. (See also Article Types).
  
MarginsUse one-inch margins on all sides. Left flush (even) and right unjustified (ragged).
  
Numbers
  • Spell numbers nine and below, use numerals for 10 and above. “The study included 55 patients, and five patients died"
  • Exceptions, express as numerals in the following situations:  
  • Preceding a unit of measurement: "a 5-mg dose", "…with 3.5 cm of"
  • Math expression: "divided by 5", "3 times as", "more than 5%" "0.33 of"
  • Representing time, dates, ages, scores, points on a scale: “3 days, 6 months, 12:30   

          a.m., 2-year-olds, ages 5-25 years, scored 4 on a 7-point scale."
  • Use hyphens with two-word numbers “twenty-one, thirty-three."
  • Use hyphens with numbers only when used as compound adjectives describing nouns (“Joe handed me a 15-foot pole", “Nurses work 12-hour shifts", “the eighteen-inch monitor is too big for my desk."
  • Do not repeat measurement units when expressing a range (90-100 mmHg)
  • Do not repeat units when expressing multiple amounts (0.3, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/dl)
  • Do repeat the % symbol when reporting a range of percentages: eg 18%-20%
  • Use commas in numbers of 1,000 or more
  • Do not start a sentence with a numeral; spell out or reword the sentence
  • Insert a space between number and unit of measurement "4.5 m, 6 hr"
  • Only use add-ons (st, nd, rd, th) with numbers when they precede the month “Their party was on the 12th of August"
  • General guidelines for methods to present numbers include:
  • If you need to present three or fewer numbers, first try using a sentence
  • If you need to present four to 20 numbers, first try using a table
  • If you need to present more than 20 numbers, first try using a figure

See APA Numbers and Statistics Guide for more information

  
Open AccessAuthors of accepted peer-reviewed articles have the choice to pay a fee to allow perpetual, unrestricted online access to their published article to readers globally immediately upon publication. (See also Publication Phases: Publication)
  
ORCIDThe ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a unique, 16-digit author identifier that enable automatic linkages between the researcher and their scholarly activities. The number distinguishes you from other researchers, even those with similar names. JTN encourages the submitting author to provide an ORCID iD when submitting a manuscript which takes around 2 minutes to register.
  
Order of
Manuscript
Cover Letter
Title page (new page)
Abstract (new page)
Manuscript (new page)
1.   Background
2.   Objective(s)
3.   Methods
4.   Results
5.   Discussion
6.   Limitations
7.   Conclusions
8.   References (new page)
9.   Key Points (new page)
10. Tables (new page each)
11. Figures (new page each)
12. Supplemental Digital Content (new page each)
Page NumbersInsert page numbers in the header, top right, starting with Abstract as page 1.
ParagraphsIndent all paragraphs (tab 0.5) except in the abstract
Center each paragraph around one main idea or single topic
Aim for ≈3-6 sentences per paragraph or 2-3 paragraphs per double spaced page
  
Paraphrasing
  • Paraphrasing restates another's idea (or your own prior published idea) in your own words.
  • Provide credit to the source with a citation and reference whenever you paraphrase.
  • A paraphrase may continue for several sentences.
  • Cite the paraphrased work on first mention.
  • Once the work has been cited, it is unnecessary to repeat the citation if the writing makes it clear that the same work continues to be paraphrased.
  • If the paraphrase continues into a new paragraph, reintroduce the citation.
  • Quotes are rarely used in academic writing. Paraphrase and cite rather than quote.
  
Patient
Confidentiality
  • To avoid compromising patient privacy and confidentiality, all patient information included in manuscripts, tables, or figures must be de-identified.
  • Only those details essential for understanding and interpreting a specific case report or case series should be provided. (See also Editorial Ethics Policy)
  
Permissions
  • Permission is required for the use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web). The author is responsible for providing written permission for figures or tables borrowed, modified, or adapted from copyrighted materials (including the author's own previous work) and for direct quotations longer than 75 words.
  
Person

In the active voice, the subject does the acting; in the passive voice, the subject is acted on.         In general, authors should use the active Voice.
  Examples:
Passive: A randomization list was generated by an independent statistician.
Active:  An independent statistician generated a randomization list.
Passive: Data were collected from 5000 patients by physicians.
Active: Physicians collected data from 5000 patients.
Passive: Baseline clinical features and a throat swab were obtained.
Active: Study clinicians obtained baseline clinical features and a throat swab.

While current academic writing encourages active Voice, the use of first-person “I, we"  
sentences should be used judiciously. Reword sentences where possible to avoid overuse.
(See also Voice)

  
Personal Communications
  • Cite personal communications with author name, date in the text, do not include in the references. Eg parenthetical citation: (B.Smith, personal communication, April 29, 2020)

    Authors must obtain permission from the individual to cite personal communications.
  
Photographic
Consent
  • Photographs of identifiable persons, whether patients or staff, must be accompanied by signed releases, such as the following: "I hereby give [author's name] permission to use the photograph of [subject's name] in the Journal of Trauma Nursing.
  
PlagiarismAll manuscripts undergo review via plagiarism-detection software prior to acceptance. To avoid plagiarism, always paraphrase (restate in your own words) and cite original authors to give credit. This includes your own previously published work to avoid self-plagiarism.
  
Punctuation
  • Use one space after the period at the end of a sentence.
  • Use commas to separate ideas or elements within a sentence “height, width, and depth."
  • Use a colon to introduce a list. “I have three brothers: David, Kent, and Jacob."
  • Use a semicolon between related but distinct thoughts. “I bought a new car; it is blue."
  • Use a semicolon between independent clauses joined by, however, therefore, then, or finally

    “The patients read the brochure; however, they had difficulties with recall."
  • Avoid the use of the slash sign in academic writing.  Do not use and/or. Simply state as or.
  • Use hyphens to join words or parts of words. Hyphen use is varied, changes over time, and should be checked with the current dictionary https://www.merriam-webster.com
  
Preferred
Terminology
  • Use advanced practitioners rather than midlevel practitioners
  • Use a descriptive reference to the hospital rather than the actual hospital name, unless necessary. For example, rather than stating "...admissions from Detroit Receiving Hospital." JTN prefers "...admissions from an urban, academic, Midwest Level I trauma center."
  • Use emergency department rather than emergency room
  • Use evidence-based rather than evidenced-based
  • Use health care rather than healthcare or health-care
  • Use Level I or II trauma center rather than: level one or two, level 1 or 2
  • Use motor vehicle crash rather than: accident, collision, road traffic injuries
  
Quotes
  • Quotes are rarely used in academic writing. Paraphrase and cite rather than quote.
  
Race and
Ethnic Identity
  • Race refers to physical differences that groups and cultures consider socially significant. For example, people might identify their race as Aboriginal, African American, Black, Asian, European American, White, Native American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Māori, or some other race.
  • Ethnicity refers to shared cultural characteristics such as language, ancestry, practices, and beliefs. For example, people might identify as Latino or another ethnicity.
  • Be clear about whether you are referring to a racial group or an ethnic group.
  • Race is a social construct that is not universal, so one must be careful not to impose racial labels on ethnic groups.
  • Capitalize names of racial and ethnic groups: eg Black, Hispanic, White. See: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/bias-free-language/racial-ethnic-minorities

     
References
  • References should strive to be current within 5-10 years, unless of historical importance.
  • Begin the reference list on a new page, following the end of the main text
  • List references in alphabetical order by author (not numbered), double space, use hanging indents (first line, flush left, subsequent lines indented).
  • Express article title in sentence (lower) case.
  • Journal titles should be written in full (no abbreviations).
  • Express the journal title in italics.
  • Include the DOI or URL (permanent link) to electronic articles) whenever possible. DOI reporting format has changed over time. Please standardize your references using the current DOI reporting format: https://doi.org/XXXX
  • When an online work is continuously updated and the versions are not archived, use "n.d." as the year of publication and include a retrieval date
  • References with 2-20 authors use an ampersand (&) before the final author's name

    “Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., & Author, E. E."
  • For references with 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors' names, insert an ellipsis (but no ampersand), and add the final author's name.
  • For references that combine individual and group authors, list the individual names first, followed by "& the members of xx group."
  • For articles originally published in a language other than English, write the reference in the original language. Insert after the title an English translation of the title in square brackets.
  • Check citation accuracy against those listed in PubMed single citation matcher:  

    See: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query/static/citmatch.html

    See: Quick Reference Guide, APA Style 7th Edition.

    See: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples

     

    REFERENCE EXAMPLES

    Journal Article

    Cahill, A., Pearcy, C., Agrawal, V., Sladek, P., & Truitt, M. S. (2017). Delirium in

        the ICU: What About the Floor? J Trauma Nurs, 24(4), 242-244.

        https://doi.org/10.1097/jtn.0000000000000298

    Journal Article Published in Another Language

    Hora, E. C., & Sousa, R. M. C. (2009). Adaptação transcultural do instrumento family

           needs questionnaire [Cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument “Family Needs

           Questionnaire"]. Revista Latino Americana de Enfermagem, 17, 541–547.

    Book

    Li, G., & Baker, S. P. (Eds.). (2012). Injury Research: Theories, Methods, and

        Approaches. Springer.

    Chapter in Edited Book

    Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney,

        & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp.

        115–129). Routledge.

    Website

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (nd). Hypertension in adults:

        Diagnosis and management (NICE Guideline NG136).

        https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng136
  
Reporting
Guidelines

JTN endorses the use of EQUATOR Network Reporting Guidelines to maintain standards of quality reporting and to ensure transparency and reproducibility.
A reporting guideline is a tool to assist authors when preparing manuscripts and reviewers when reviewing an article.
Follow the reporting guideline that most closely matches your study design
Not all manuscripts will have a corresponding guideline.
Authors are encouraged to submit a guideline checklist with their manuscript.

  • Clinical Practice Guidelines use AGREE
  • Case Report use CARE
  • Cost-Effectiveness use CHEERS
  • Randomized Control Trials use CONSORT
  • Meta-analysis Observational studies use MOOSE
  • Systematic Reviews/Meta-Analyses use PRISMA
  • Scoping Reviews use PRISMA ScR
  • Statistics Reporting use SAMPL
  • Quality Improvement use SQUIRE2.0
  • Educational Improvement use SQUIRE-EDU
  • Qualitative Studies use SRQR/COREQ
  • Diagnostic/Prognostic Studies use STARD
  • Observational Studies use STROBE
  • Reporting of Interventions use TIDieR
  • Non-Randomized Studies use TREND
  • Integrative Review use Whittemore & Knafl (2005) J Adv Nur, 52(5):546

    Survey Research use AAPOR Standards; https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001069
  
Sample Size
Calculation
For randomized trials, a statement of the power or sample size calculation is required (see the EQUATOR Network CONSORT Guidelines). A power calculation is not generally required for observational studies that use an established population when the sample size is fixed. However, if the researchers determined the sample size through sampling or matching, there should be some justification for the number sampled. Describe power and sample size calculations at the beginning of the Statistical Methods section, following the general description of the study population.
Sentence

Sentences should be short, simple, and direct. Break compound sentences into simple sentences.

  • Do not start sentences with a numeral or abbreviation. Spell out or reword.
   
SpacingDouble-space the paper and references. Include only one space after periods.
Do not add blank lines before or after headings or between paragraphs.
  
Spelling
  
Statistics

Present numerical results (eg, absolute numbers or rates) with appropriate indicators of uncertainty, such as confidence intervals. In general, report numbers rounded to two decimal places. Use means and standard deviations (SDs) for normally distributed data and medians and ranges or interquartile ranges (IQRs) for data that are not normally distributed.

  • Include sufficient information to allow readers to understand the analyses
  • Make clear the statistical test used for each section of the analysis
  • Do not start a sentence with a numeral, rather spell out or reword.
  • Express statistical symbols in italics. Eg n, M, SD, df, t, F, p
  • Include a space between symbols and numerals
  • Use lowercase to express: n for sample size and p value.
  • Report total sample and group sizes. eg A total of 150 patients were studied, of which 90 (60%) were in the pre-intervention group versus 60 (40%) in the post-intervention group.
  • Express percentages as n (%). Make numerator and denominator readily apparent to the reader. Eg Of 255 frail patients, 179 (70.2%) were women.
  • As a rule of thumb, when the number of the denominator is less than 100, it is better to report percentages only as a whole number. Eg We observed acute graft rejection in 18 (25%) of 73 transplant recipients.
  • Do not report percentages when the sample size is less than 30; report actual numbers. Instead of "Of 15 patients studied, 26.67% presented with fever," write as, "Four of 15 patients presented with fever."
  • Repeat the % symbol when reporting a range of percentages: eg 18%-20%.
  • Express normally distributed data as mean and standard deviation to one decimal place; express as M = x.x, SD = x.x; or M (SD), Not as M + SD.
  • Express non-normally distributed data as median and interquartile range to one decimal place; express as Mdn = xx.x (IQR xx-xx)
  • Express confidence intervals to 2 decimal places as: % CI, lower limit, upper limit. eg (95% CI, 1.30,13.51)
  • Report point estimates with CI rather than p values alone. eg (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.08, 3.09, p = .03)
  • To minimize repetition of data already in tables, consider reporting the degree of the difference
  • eg “Group A had systolic blood pressure that was on average 4.5 mm Hg higher (95% CI, 3.2,5.8) than group B (p = .002)
  • Total cholesterol concentrations were 19% higher in Group A compared with Group B (p = .012)
  • Use semicolons and brackets as needed to separate sets of statistics that already contain commas and parenthesis. eg (age, M = 34.5 years, 95% CI [29.4, 39.6]; years of education, M = 10.4 [8.7, 12.1]; and weekly income, M = $612 [522, 702]).
  • Decimal Places: Report most statistics (correlations, proportions, inferential statistics, exact p values) to two decimal places; but means, standard deviations, medians, IQR to one place
  • Leading Zero: Use a zero before the decimal point for most statistics (except p values & correlations)
  • State the significance threshold (the p value used as a cutoff of determining significance) in the Methods section.   Ex." The significance threshold was set at .05".
  • Specify the statistical software program and version, company, location used in the Methods

    Section eg “Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY). 

    See APA Numbers and Statistics Guide

    See Statistical Analysis and Methods in the Published Literature SAMPL Guidelines

     

    P Values

    p values alone fail to convey the strength or size of an effect, change, or relationship.

    The p value should never be presented alone without the data that are being compared.

    p values should follow the report of comparisons of absolute numbers or rates along with a measure of uncertainty (eg, 0.8%, 95% CI [0.2,1.8]; p = .13).

    Report exact p values. If the exact value is less than .001, then report as "p <.001

    Express the p value as lowercase, in italics, without a leading zero and no hyphen between "p" and "value."

     

    Example statistical statements:
  • We observed graft rejection in 18 (24.66%) of 73 transplant recipients
  • Frail patients were older than nonfrail patients (mean [SD], 79.2 [12.1] years versus 66.2 [11.9] years, respectively; p < .001)
  • Complications in FTR cases occurred earlier than in non-FTR cases (median 2 days [IQR
    1. days] versus 4 days [IQR 2-8 days], p < .001)
  • The median (IQR) serum cholesterol level was 140 (120-250) mg/dL
  • Younger patients had lower odds of death (OR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79,0.94; p = .002)
  • There was a positive correlation between height and weight, r = 0.985, p = .02
  • The main effect was significant, F(1,149) = 2.12, p = .02."
  • Younger teens woke up earlier (M = 7:30, SD = .45) than teens in general, t(33) = 2.10, p = 0.31
  • Younger teens indicated a significant preference for video games (M = 7.45, SD = 2.51) than books (M = 4.22, SD = 2.23), t(15) = 4.00, p < .001
  • The two sets of exam results are strongly correlated, r(55) = .49, p < .001.

     
Supplemental Digital Content (SDC)
  • Supplemental Digital Content (SDC) are extra (tables, graphs, audio, video, etc.)
  • SDC are available in online articles by clicking a URL.
  • Cite SDC consecutively in the text, as [material type, SDC number, description].
  • eg "We performed tests on elbow flexibility (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, which demonstrates the degrees of flexibility in the elbow) and found our results inconclusive."
  • Submit a list of SDC at the end of the manuscript file, following tables and figures, include SDC number and file type.
  • SDC is posted as submitted without editing by the journal. SDC files should be no larger than 10 MB each. For a list of available file types and detailed instructions, please see: http://links.lww.com/A142

     
Surveys
  • Surveys should report data collected within the past two years
  • IRB is required for most surveys
  • Include characterization of nonresponders
  • Report the survey outcomes using standard definitions and metrics (AAPOR).
  • Submit the survey questions as a figure or supplemental digital content.

    (See also Reporting Guidelines)
  
Tables
  • Tables are characterized by a row-column structure to display numbers
  • Tables should be self-contained and complement, not duplicate, information in the text
  • Submit tables as editable text in Word, do not submit as images pasted into Word.
  • Start each table on a separate page (do not embed within the text)
  • Place all tables and figures at the end of the manuscript, after references and key points
  • The total number of tables and figures combined should not exceed 5
  • Submit tables over eight columns and or 40 rows as Supplemental Digital Content
  • Submit extra tables as Supplemental Digital Content
  • Cite each table within the text in the order first mentioned.
  • Label tables with a number and short descriptive title max 15 words.
  • Define abbreviations in Note beneath, even if previously defined in the text.
  • Do not include references within or under tables.  If you feel the need to reference a table, you need to obtain permission from the author to reprint their work.  State in Note underneath table reprinted or adapted with permission.  Example: From Killen, A. & Macaskill, A. (2015). Using a gratitude intervention to enhance well-being in older adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), 955. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9542-3). Copyright 2014 by Springer Science & Business Media Dordrecht. Reprinted with permission.
  • Tables may use 10- or 11-point font, with 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 spacing
  • Label all axes, elements, and units of measurement within tables
  • Place major independent variables in the left-most column
  • Column headings and subheadings should delineate subcategories.
  • When possible, list data in separate columns: n, %, CI, M, SD, point estimate, P
  • Express number as n and percentage as (%)
  • When category percentages do not sum to 100%, explain the reason in a brief note underneath
  • Increase table white space by minimizing internal gridlines and remove all background shading

    • See APA table formatting and examples at:

    https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/tables-figures/tables
  
TenseUse past tense when possible and stay consistent for background, methods, and results.
Use present tense for discussion, limitations, and conclusions.
See APA tense at https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/grammar/verb-tense
  
Title
  • The title should be descriptive and concise, strive for < 15 words; place the main topic in the first half of the title to optimize indexing
  • Do not state as a question.
  • Do not include abbreviations 
  • Do not reveal the study findings
  • Trauma center type and level should only be included in the title if the intent is to compare care across levels.  
  • The title should include country names if the content is narrowly country-specific (non-generalizable) to contemporary North American trauma care. (See also Manuscript Sections).
  
Title Page

The title page provides critical information and includes ten items (as applicable):

  1. Running Head. Abbreviated title <6 words, capitalized, in header left side
  2. Title. List full manuscript title, in title case, centered
  3. Author List. List authors, credentials, and affiliations, ORCID #, and Email
    1. List first name, middle initial, and last name of each author
    2. List author credentials (academic degrees, certification, licensure) at the time of the study, in the following order;

                                                    i.     highest academic credential (eg MSN),
                                                   ii.     licensure (eg RN),
                                                  iii.     certifications (eg TCRN).
                                                  iv.     Do not list honorary eg (FAAN) or candidacy credentials PhD(c).

    1. List institutional affiliation at the time the study was performed as

                                                    i.     Department, institution, location

    1. List authors ORCID number, Twitter handle, and Email (if available)
  1. Corresponding Author. List name, address, phone, and email address
  2. Author Changes. Indicate recent author changes in degree, title, or affiliation. eg, Author XX is now Trauma Program Manager at XX Trauma Center.
  3. Conference. Indicate if the material was previously presented or will be presented at an upcoming conference. List conference title, date, and location. 
  4. Conflicts of Interest Funding Sources. State all possible perceived conflicts of interest, including financial, consultant, institutional, or other relationships that may lead to bias or a conflict of interest. List a disclosure statement for each author; or if all authors have nothing to declare, state explicitly as: “The authors have no conflicts of interest or funding to declare."

Example statements:
This research was supported by a grant from XX Institution (grant # AB576)
Author XX owns stock in XX company
Author XX is currently receiving (grant #XX) from Organization XX
Author XX has received consulting fees from XX, a company that manufactures a 
competing product to the one discussed in this paper.

  1. Overlapping Publications or Preprints. Indicate whether the manuscript overlaps substantially with previously published work or work submitted elsewhere, including preprints. Submit a copy of the related material to the editor upon submission with an explanation. (See also Previously Published Materia)
  2. Data Analysis Responsibility. For manuscripts containing data, list one or two authors responsible for the data analysis. State as: Author X and XX "had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis." If the individual(s) who conducted the analysis are not listed as authors, list them in acknowledgments and describe their involvement with the data analysis. (See also Data Policy)
  3. Acknowledgments.  List those individuals who made significant contributions to the study but who do not meet authorship criteria. Authors must have the individual's permission to be acknowledged.

       Example acknowledgment statements:
- We thank the participating patients and staff of the XX Unit at XX center.
- We thank XX for assistance with the literature search strategy.
- The authors acknowledge the contribution of the participating trauma surgeons and
trauma program managers, and trauma registrars of the XXX Collaborative.

  
TransitionsBuild a cohesive text using transition words to link sentences and paragraphs.
For a list of examples, see APA 7th Transitions Guide
  
Units of MeasureJTN uses the International System of Units (SI).
Use the metric system for all measurements.
Where U.S. measurements must be used, include metric equivalents in parentheses. Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius. Blood pressure in millimeters of mercury.
  
Voice
  • Use active Voice when possible to create direct, clear, concise sentences.
  • Active Voice (subject, verb, object) or (who, did, what) "students completed surveys."
  • Passive Voice (object, verb, subject "surveys were completed by students."
  
Writing Style
  • Write to the level of an experienced trauma clinician, using scientific American English.
  • Readability is a factor in the acceptance of all papers; strive to enlighten, not to impress.
  • Avoid medical jargon, unnecessary wordiness, and overlong sentences and paragraphs
  • Present ideas in a direct, straightforward, simple declarative sentences, using active Voice.
  • Clarity if your responsibility, not the readers.
  • The editorial office reserves the right to modify text for readability during copyediting.
  • The abstract is of critical importance as it is often the only thing that gets read.
  • Articles are frequently rejected based on the abstract alone. 
  • Readers often decide if the rest of the article is worth reading based on the abstract. 
  

 

MANUSCRIPT SECTIONS

SectionSuggested LayoutSuggested Length
TitleConcise statement of the main topic, population, study type. Be concise.
Include main topic 1-2 keywords within the first 65 characters of your title.
Do not include abbreviations, jargon, state as a question, or reveal study results
Include study design in the second half of the title as appropriate.
Do not include Trauma Center Level or Country in title unless pertinent.
15 words

Abstract

 

BACKGROUND: State problem, significance, and context. What is currently known, what is not known (research gap), and how to address the gap.
OBJECTIVE: "The purpose of this study…
METHODS: Start with a research design statement. Describe the population, setting, data source, collection period, define key variables, statistical analysis.
RESULTS: Start with total number of subjects studied, then group demographics, then key findings, point estimates, confidence intervals, effect sizes, and P values.  
CONCLUSION: State in 1 or 2 sentences precisely what the study data support. KEYWORDS: 5-7 keywords for indexing, use MeSH terms

2-3 sentences

1 sentence
3-4 sentences

3-5 sentences

 
1-2 sentences
1-2 sentences

Text  
BackgroundParagraph 1. State problem & significance. Bring the reader up to speed on the topic.  Why should the reader care?
Paragraph 2. Provide context with pertinent (select) research, but avoid a detailed literature review. What is not currently known, what remains unanswered or controversial?  What is the research gap?
Paragraph 3. Describe potential interventions to address the gap. Connect the gap to your study plan. What intervention may work?
3 paragraphs
Objective"The purpose of this study is…"1 sentence
MethodsProvide a clear overview of what was done, balancing brevity with detail.
Incorporate subheadings to help guide the reader. Begin methods section with a study design statement. “This was a prospective cohort study..." Then describe the population, inclusion-exclusion criteria, setting, sample size, data collection dates, variable definitions, procedures, instruments or tools used with validity and reliability, program, or intervention description. Create a figure (flow diagram) depicting inclusion, exclusion, study steps graphically explained with the number of participants in each step. End the methods section with a description of the planned statistical analysis. State the level of significance used to report results, including name, version, company location of statistical software used, and a brief IRB statement.
1-3 pages
ResultsThe results should be concise, to the point, data-heavy, and should directly address the study objective. Report results objectively without interpretation. Do not overstate findings. Avoid statistically significant.  Report total sample size first, before group sizes using n (%) for each analysis, making the numerator and denominator clear to the reader. Present outcomes in the same order they were introduced in methods. Importance can be signaled to the reader with phrases like “We found, We observed, We detected" Reference primary data points from tables, but avoid repeating lines of results. Emphasize key results with figures. Describe the amount and type of missing data. 1-3 paragraphs
DiscussionStart with a brief restatement of major key findings. Discuss and interpret your results as defined by the study objective. Put the findings into context to the literature. Provide insights (interpret) how your results refute, contrast, validate, or add to previous work. Discuss the practical application of your work relative to appropriate stakeholders.1-3 Paragraphs
LimitationsAcknowledge and explain 3-5 limitations that threaten study validity.
Be transparent and self-critical. Highlight efforts made to mitigate limitations.
1 paragraph
ConclusionBriefly restate primary conclusions. Make suggestions for future research.1 paragraph

​PUBLICATION PHASES

PRE-SUBMISSION CONDITIONS 

The manuscript or parts of it must not have been previously published in any format or any language;

  • Previous presentation as an abstract, poster or oral presentation at a conference is acceptable;
  • The article must NOT be under consideration for publication elsewhere;
  • Manuscripts will be assessed with software to detect plagiarism and inappropriate duplication;
  • The manuscript must be the sole intellectual property of the authors of the paper;
  • The author accepts full responsibility for the accuracy of all content within the manuscript;
  • The author must disclose all conflicts of interest and sources of research funding on the title page;
  • Once accepted, manuscripts become the permanent property of JTN;
  • It is a condition of submission that the authors permit editing of their manuscript to meet formatting requirements;

    MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

    Submit manuscripts online at http://JTN.edmgr.com/ First-time users click the Register button and enter the requested information. On successful registration, you will be sent an email indicating your user name and password (save for reference). Note: If you have previously registered and have an assigned user ID and password, do not register again. Just log in. Once you have an assigned ID and password, you do not have to re-register, even if your status changes (that is, author, reviewer, or editor). Authors: Please click the log-in button from the menu at the top of the page and log in to the system as an Author. Submit your manuscript according to the author's instructions. You will be able to track the progress of your manuscript through the system. If problems, email Judy Mikhail, Editor, at [email protected].

     POST-SUBMISSION

    Initial Screen

    The editor initially assesses the manuscript for suitability to the journal's mission, vision, and aims. Manuscripts with insufficient suitability are promptly rejected.

    Technical Check

    Manuscripts judged worthy of further consideration are screened for:
  • Plagiarism and duplication detection software analysis
  • Blinding or masking of author or institution names within the text
  • IRB approval for research and performance improvement manuscripts
  • Conflicts of interest disclosure and funding statements on the title page
  • APA 7th Ed formatting, double spaced, with pages, numbered

     If technical corrections are required, the manuscript is returned to the author with issues to correct. Manuscripts not corrected within 30 days are permanently cleared from the Editorial Manager System and require resubmission as a new manuscript. Manuscripts with completed technical checks judged worthy of consideration are sent for peer review.

    Review Process Overview

    JTN reviews will be objective, rigorous, and responsible. The editor strives to work with and invest in authors to improve their manuscripts to achieve the greatest scholarly impact for a knowledgeable trauma audience. It is a condition of submission that the authors permit editing of the manuscript for readability. JTN strives to achieve a cogent, professionally written, error-free article by editing grammar, style, readability, and sense, cross-checking all numbers, statements, and references while maintaining confidential, respectful, and timely communication with authors. Revision requests are commonplace, averaging up to 3 or more per paper. JTN also strives to be sensitive to issues due to authors writing in a language that is not their first or most proficient language and phrase the feedback appropriately and with due respect. Authors should submit revisions within 30 days but may request a one-time extension from the editor. Manuscripts not revised within three months are cleared from the Editorial Manager System and will require resubmission as a new manuscript.

    Peer Review Confidentiality

    The existence of a manuscript under review should not be revealed to anyone other than peer reviewers and editorial staff. Peer reviewers and authors are required to maintain the confidentiality of manuscripts under review. Information from submitted manuscripts may be systematically collected and analyzed by JTN as part of research to improve the review process's quality. Identifying information remains confidential.

    Double-Blind Peer Review

    JTN uses a double-blind review, which means the identities of both the authors and reviewers are concealed from each other. Manuscripts are reviewed by at least three peer-review panel members, selected based on their areas of expertise. Reviews are expected to be timely within 28 days. The editor may assign additional reviews from experts in related fields (statisticians, psychologists, quantitative or qualitative methods experts, and medical librarians), extending the turnaround time to authors. Reviewers make recommendations about topic relevance, study originality, study context, degree of knowledge advancement, scientific strength, and writing quality. The editor organizes and edits reviewer comments for consistency and clarity with JTN author guidelines and APA 7th edition formatting. The editor notifies the author of the journal's decision and provides a list of issues to address.

    Editor's Decision

    The editor holds final responsibility for the manuscript decision. The decision is either: (a) to accept the manuscript, (b)

    reject the manuscript, or (c) invite a revision (minor or major). The decision is sent to the corresponding author through the Editorial Manager system. The editor's decision is final. The editor does not engage with authors regarding rejected manuscripts.

     Responding to Reviewer and Editor Comments

    Authors do not have to agree with every reviewer's comment, but all comments should be addressed.

    Submit revisions in a simple table as an itemized, point-by-point response to the comments of the reviewers.

    Detail what was changed or not with rationale. Example:

     
Reviewer CommentsAuthor Response (Changes Made or Explanation)
1.1.
2.2.

 
Submit the revised manuscript as a clean version. DO NOT use highlighting or track changes.
Further revisions, including changes not identified or addressed from previous reviews, may still be required.

POST ACCEPTANCE

Proofreading & Corrections
 
The editor will make final manuscript copyedits for style, readability, and space requirements. Before publication, the corresponding author is sent the article proofs (typeset article) via Email to check typesetting and copyediting changes. The author is responsible for ensuring no errors in the proof's scientific content, spelling, grammar, and syntax. Changes to conform to journal style will stand, provided they do not alter the authors' meaning. Only changes that are critical to the accuracy of the content will be accepted. If an error is spotted in a figure, that figure must be amended by the author and re-sent to the Production Editor to replace the erroneous figure. Contact the editor to initiate a formal corrigendum or erratum production if an error is made by the author(s) or the journal. Articles that have not yet been published in an issue, but have been published ahead-of-print, will be amended for the issue version of their publication, and a corrigendum/erratum will not be issued.

Prepublication Embargo
 
Authors should not disclose that their manuscript has been accepted to anyone except coauthors and contributors without the editor's permission until it is published. The confidentiality restriction does not apply to information presented at scientific or clinical meetings or publication of a conference abstract, provided that authors do not present or distribute the manuscript or its full findings.

PUBLICATION

Open Access
 
Authors of accepted peer-reviewed articles have the choice to pay a fee to allow perpetual, unrestricted online access to their published article to readers globally immediately upon publication. Authors may take advantage of the open access option at the point of acceptance to ensure that this choice does not influence the peer review and acceptance process. Open access articles are subject to the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their merit. The article processing charge (APC) is charged on accepting the article and should be paid within 30 days by the author, funding agency, or institution. Payment must be processed for the article to be published open access. Authors must also complete a License to Publish form, provided after acceptance and upon authors' request for Open Access publication. For more information, see Wolters Kluwer Open Access FAQs

Authors Retain Copyright

Authors retain their copyright for all articles they opt to publish open access.
Authors grant Wolters Kluwer an exclusive license to publish the article, and the article is made available under the terms of a Creative Commons user license.
 
Creative Commons License

Open access articles will be freely available to read, download and share from the time of publication.
All open access articles are published under the terms of various Creative Commons 4.0 licenses.

Compliance with Funder Mandated Open Access Policies

An author whose work is funded by an organization that mandates the use of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license can meet that requirement through the available open-access license for approved funders.
Information about the approved funders can be found here: http://www.wkopenhealth.com/inst-fund.php
 

POST PUBLICATION

Social Media
JTN uses social media to amplify dissemination. The JTN Digital Editor may contact corresponding authors to assist with the promotion of their article. Authors interested in increasing the reach and awareness of their research through infographics or visual abstracts can obtain assistance through the Wolters Kluwer author site with Editage.
 
Reprints              
 
On article publication, the corresponding author will receive an email notification to order reprints through the reprint website storefront: http://Wolterskluwerreprint.qconnect.com  For reprints of articles published more than one year ago or questions, please contact Wolters Kluwer Author Reprint Customer Service or call 1-866-903-6951.
EDITORIAL POLICIES

Research Integrity
 
The following organizations guide JTN's Editorial Policies:

American Psychological Association (APA)
Journal of Trauma Nursing follows the formatting standards outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (7th ed.) The manual guides users through the scholarly writing process — from the ethics of authorship to reporting research through publication.

Committee for Publication Ethics (COPE)
Journal of Trauma Nursing is a member of the Committee for Publication Ethics (COPE). JTN adheres to the core practices established by COPE and is committed to a transparent process in handling all manuscripts. Any alleged breach of scientific integrity will be adjudicated with guidance from COPE.

Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT)
CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) is a high-level taxonomy of 14 roles that depict the authors' specific contributions to the article. Adopted by JTN in 2020, this taxonomy aims to improve the transparency, accessibility, and visibility of all research contributions.

Equator Network
The EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) Network is an international initiative that seeks to improve the reliability and value of published health research literature by promoting transparent and accurate reporting and wider use of robust reporting guidelines. JTN advocates the use of EQUATOR reporting guidelines by both authors and reviewers. JTN encourages authors to submit their reporting guideline checklists.

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)
The ICMJE is a group of medical journal editors and related organizations working to improve the quality of medical science and its reporting. Journal of Trauma Nursing endorses and follows the policies of the ICMJE, as defined in its Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.
 
World Medical Association of Medical Ethics
The World Medical Association (WMA) promotes global policy statements on a range of ethical issues related to medical professionalism, patient care, research on human subjects, and public health.
 
AUTHORSHIP POLICY
 
Authorship
 
JTN follows the ICMJE authorship criteria. Each author must meet one of each of the following four criteria:

  1. substantial contributions to conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; and
  2. drafting of the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
  3. final approval of the version to be published; and
  4. agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

    Author Contribution

    To aid in providing author credit, JTN uses the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) to specify author contributions. The authors outline their individual contributions to the paper using the recognized relevant 14 CRediT roles on submission. All other persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in this manuscript (eg, data collection, analysis, or writing or editing assistance) but who do not fulfill the ICMJE authorship criteria should be named with their specific contributions and affiliations in the Acknowledgment section (see also Acknowledgments; Title page).

    Gift or Ghost Author

    Gift Authorship is someone who has made little or no contribution to a manuscript or study but is included in the author list. Ghost Authorship is the omission of an author who deserves to be listed as an author or contributor on a manuscript or study but is omitted from the author list. Both are strictly prohibited for all manuscripts submitted to JTN. Should the editor suspect ghost or gift authorship, the journal will follow the steps listed on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) flowchart for assessing and handling the situation.

    Corresponding Author

    A single corresponding author will serve on behalf of all coauthors as the primary correspondent with the editorial office

    Corresponding Author Responsibilities:
  • Ensure all authors have approved the article before submission for publication
  • Ensure the order and accuracy of all author names, credentials, and institution affiliations on the title page, which serves as the final source for the publication.
  • Ensure that the conflict-of-interest disclosures reported in the manuscript's Acknowledgment section are accurate, up-to-date, and consistent with the author's declared statements.
  • Ensure that the author and institution names within the text are masked or blinded on initial submission for initial peer review. 
  • The corresponding author will review, edit and approve manuscript proofs, handle all post-publication communications and inquiries, and is identified as the corresponding author in the published article.

 ORCID

The ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a unique, 16-digit author identifier that enable automatic linkages between the researcher and their scholarly activities. The number distinguishes you from other researchers, even those with similar names. JTN encourages the submitting author to provide an ORCID iD when submitting a manuscript. This takes around 2 minutes to register. See ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID).

Dual Authorship

In limited cases, co-authorship is allowed. List authors who share the first authorship in bold text on the title page and the reference list. Also, include the phrase "Author names in bold designate shared co-first authorship" on the title page and at the end of the references section. Only one author may serve as the corresponding author. The corresponding author will be listed first.

Changes in Authorship

Authors should determine the order of authorship among themselves and should settle disagreements before submitting their manuscripts. After submission, changes to authorship must be formally requested in a letter to the editor listing a) newly added or deleted authors and a change in the order of the previously listed authors, and b) the reason for the change. All authors (including any who are being removed) and (any newly-added) must sign the request to agree to the change. The corresponding author should email this information to all of the authors and copy the JTN Editor. Each author should then reply to all with his/her approval. If there is any dispute in the authorship from any party, the submitted manuscript will remain unpublished until the involved individuals resolve the matter. The editor does not engage in these disputes.

Group Authorship

If authorship is attributed to a group (either solely or in addition to one or more individual authors), all group members must meet the full criteria and requirements for authorship as described above, and all group member authors must complete copyright transfer agreements. Suppose all members of a group do not meet all authorship criteria. In that case, a group must designate one or more individuals as authors or members of a writing group who meet full authorship criteria and requirements and take responsibility for the group. Other group members who do not meet the authorship criteria may be listed in the Acknowledgment section.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST POLICY
 
JTN follows ICMJE Conflict of Interest Recommendations. A conflict of interest exists when an author, peer reviewer, or editor has financial or personal relationships with persons or organizations that may inappropriately influence or bias their actions. There is a potential for a conflict of interest whether an individual believes that a relationship affects their scientific judgment or not. All participants in the peer review or publication process must disclose relationships viewed as potential conflicts of interest.

Potential Author Conflicts of Interest and Financial Disclosures

Authors must disclose all possible conflicts of interest on the title page, including, but not limited to, employment, affiliation, funding, grants, consultancies, honoraria, or stock ownership. If there is no conflict of interest, this should be explicitly stated. (See also Title page)

Copyright

Each author must complete and submit the Journal's Copyright Transfer Agreement, which includes a section on disclosing potential conflicts of interest based on ICMJE, "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" (www.icmje.org/update.html). A copy of the form is made available to the submitting author and coauthors during the Editorial Manager submission process.

Potential Reviewer Conflicts

Individuals who have potential conflicts of interest should not serve as peer reviewers; this includes individuals who work in the same institution as any authors, closely collaborate with the authors in practice, clinical care, or research, or have a financial interest in the subject matter under review. JTN requires peer reviewers to disclose any conflicts to the editor upon receiving an invitation to review and recuse themselves from reviewing manuscripts where the potential for bias exists. Reviewers may not disclose or use knowledge of the work they review before publication to further their interests.

Potential Editorial Board Member Conflicts

JTN Editorial Board members may only serve on the editorial boards of other journals with the express permission of the JTN Editor. Individuals may not serve on the JTN Editorial Board and the STN Board of Directors simultaneously. Editorial Board Members may submit manuscripts to JTN but will remain independent of the editorial review process.  

Potential Editor Conflicts

Potential Editor conflicts include a) the editor serving as an author of a manuscript (other than an Editorial) and b) the editor having a close collaboration or relationship with a manuscript author through practice, clinical care, or research, or have a financial interest in the subject manner. Following the guidelines set by the Committee on Publication Ethics, the manuscript review process and the final decision will be managed independent of the editor. To avoid conflict of interest, the editor does not process their own submissions. Disclosure of this fact will be published with the final article.  

Editorial Independence
 
Per ICMJE, the JTN adopts the World Association of Medical Editors' definition of editorial freedom, which holds that editors-in-chief have full authority over the entire editorial content of their journal and the timing of publication of that content.  The STN does not interfere in the evaluation, selection, scheduling, or editing of individual articles directly or by creating an environment that strongly influences decisions. Individuals may not serve on the JTN editorial board and STN board of directors simultaneously. 

Advertising Policy
 
JTN maintains a strict line of separation between advertising and Journal content to maintain the journal's quality and ensure that commercial considerations do not affect editorial decisions. JTN carefully differentiates editorial content and advertising.  Advertising does not influence editorial decisions or editorial content. JTN does not publish sponsored supplements or advertorials.

Disclaimer

All articles published, including opinion articles or editorials, represent the authors' opinions and do not reflect the official policy of JTN, the Society of Trauma Nurses, Wolters Kluwer, or the institutions with which the author is affiliated unless otherwise indicated. The final responsibility for the scientific accuracy and validity of published manuscripts rests with the authors, not the journal, its editors, or the publisher. The journal does not guarantee, warrant, or endorse any advertised product or service, nor do they guarantee any claim made by manufacturers of such product or service.

DATA POLICY
 
Data Responsibility

For all studies containing original data, specific authors that had full access to the study data and who take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis should be identified in the CRediT section on manuscript submission (See also Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT).  List those individuals who conducted the analysis but who are not listed as authors in the acknowledgments section of the title page to explain their contributions.

Data Sharing

To encourage research transparency, JTN encourages all datasets on which the paper's conclusions are based to be available to readers. Authors are encouraged to either a) deposit their datasets in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate), b) present in full within the manuscript, or c) make them available to the editor upon request if questions arise.

Preregistration Requirements

Clinical Trials     

Clinical trials must have been registered before the first participant's enrollment to be eligible for peer review. The NIH defines a clinical trial as a research study in which one or more human subjects are prospectively assigned to one or more interventions (including placebo or other control) to evaluate the effects of those interventions on health-related biomedical or behavioral outcomes. Health-related biomedical or behavioral outcomes. This requirement applies to all clinical trials. Registration is also required for the consideration of brief reports describing protocols for full-scale RCTs. Reports of findings from unregistered clinical trials will be returned and will not be peer-reviewed. Trials should be registered on acceptable databases listed at sites such as:

  • WHO http://www.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/index.html; or
  • CLINICALTRIALS.GOV - https://clinicaltrials.gov/

    Include the registry and trial number on the title page document of the manuscript and within Editorial Manager; when submitting the article, respond to the Author question item about clinical trial registration. For more information, see ICMJE/Clinical Trial Registration at http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/publishing-and-editorial-issues/clinical-trial-registration.html

     Systematic Reviews

     Systematic reviews should be registered with a protocol before performing the review. This record aims to provide a comprehensive listing to avoid duplication and reduce the opportunity for reporting bias by comparing the completed review with what was planned in the protocol. Registering the systematic review protocol serves as a record and should be cited in the Methods section of your manuscript. Reviews can be registered at:
  • PROSPERO is an international database of prospectively registered systematic reviews for health outcomes.

 ETHICS POLICY

Ethical Approval and Informed Consent

For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human participants, a formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver, are required from an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee.  The IRB or ethics statement is required in the Methods section and should include the committee's name. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. For investigations of humans, state in the Methods section how informed consent was obtained from the study participants (i.e., oral or written) and whether participants received a stipend. Authors of research studies involving humans should not make independent determinations of exemption or exclusion of IRB or ethical review; they should cite the institutional or regulatory policy for that determination and indicate if the data are de-identified and publicly available or protected by prior consent or privacy safeguards. The Editors may at any time request that the authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for the study's oversight. (See also Institutional Review Board)

Patient Anonymity and Informed Consent

It is the author's responsibility to ensure that a patient's anonymity is carefully protected and to verify that any experimental investigation with human subjects reported in the manuscript was performed with informed consent and following all the guidelines for experimental investigation with human subjects required by the institution(s) with which all the authors are affiliated. Authors should mask patients' eyes and remove patients' names from figures unless they obtain written consent and submit written consent with the manuscript.

Personal Communications

List personal communication in the text parenthetically but not in the references. A signed and dated permission statement from the individual is required for submission of the manuscript.

Permissions

Authors are responsible for obtaining signed letters from copyright holders granting permission to reprint material borrowed or adapted from other sources, including previously published material of your own or Wolters Kluwer. This includes forms, checklists, cartoons, text, tables, figures, exhibits, glossaries, and pamphlets; concepts, theories, or formulas used exclusively in a chapter or section; direct quotes from a book or journal that are over 30% of a printed page; and all excerpts from newspapers or other short articles. Without written permission from the copyright holder, these items may not be used. Authors are responsible for any permission fees to borrow reprinted material.

Embargo Policy

In journalism and public relations, the press is often given advance knowledge of an article to prepare a review but cannot release it until press time. Articles to be published in JTN are assigned an embargo period of 7 days. Authors, journalists, and their institutions cannot release the article information before this time period.

Compliance With Funding Agency Requirements 

Several research funding agencies now require or request authors to submit the post-print (the article after peer review and acceptance but not the final published article) to a repository accessible online by all without charge. As a service to our authors, Wolters Kluwer will identify to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) articles that require a deposit and will transmit the post-print of an article based on research funded in whole or in part by the National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, or other funding agencies to PubMed Central. The revised Copyright Transfer Agreement provides the mechanism.

Previously Published Material

Preprints

JTN will consider manuscripts previously available as preprints. Authors must provide information about any preprint postings, including copies of the posted manuscript and a link to it, at the time of submission to JTN. Authors are requested to update any pre-publication versions with a link to the final published article.

Overlapping or Duplicate Publications

JTN does not publish articles that overlap substantially with articles already published elsewhere. Authors should acknowledge any overlap or duplication upfront to the editor and submit copies of any related articles and provide an explanation of the differences, or otherwise risk rejection.  JTN will follow COPE redundant (duplicate) publication flowchart.

MISCONDUCT POLICY

The editor is responsible for pursuing suspected misconduct cases even in submissions they do not intend to publish. The editor will follow COPE guidelines on sharing information on possible misconduct with other journals and institutions. The JTN editor will cooperate with investigations and respond to other institutions and journals about misconduct allegations. The editor will follow COPE guidance for publication ethics. The editor will publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed. The editor will promptly retract any seriously flawed article as a responsible action to safeguard the academic record. The U.S. Government Printing Office defines scientific misconduct as the fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, reviewing research, or reporting research results. Any published article found to have been based on fabricated or falsified data will be officially retracted in print and online, with notifications made to the indexing services as required.

Fabrication

To lessen the chances of undetected fabrication or falsification of data, most manuscripts containing detailed statistical analysis selected for publication are reviewed by a Statistical Reviewer. If fabricated data is suspected, the COPE fabricated data guideline will be followed.

Falsification

The journal's expectations for image processing are that (1) it is acceptable to adjust contrast/levels or rescale, provided that the adjustment was performed across the entire image; and (2) if certain parts of an image have been altered (other than obscuring confidential patient information), the authors must explain what has been done in a text box provided during the submission process and must be prepared to provide the original image for the editors' inspection. Image manipulation (duplication of parts within an image or identical images to show different things) will be adjudicated based on COPEs Image Manipulation flowchart.

Plagiarism

Accepted manuscripts are analyzed by plagiarism detection software before publication. Consistent with the US Office of Research Integrity, JTN does not consider "limited use of identical or nearly-identical phrases which describe a commonly-used methodology or previous research" to meet the definition of plagiarism. However, authors must not copy blocks of texts verbatim from previously published works, even in the methods section. If study methods are published elsewhere, they should be summarized, and the previously published article should be referenced to avoid redundant publication issues. If potential plagiarism (including self-plagiarism or text recycling) is detected, authors will be contacted for clarification. If plagiarism is confirmed, editorial action may be taken as detailed by COPE Suspected Plagiarism Flowchart. These actions may also be taken if other examples of academic misconduct (eg, breaches of publication ethics) are discovered, either before or after publication. The actions taken by the editors may include (but are not limited to): publication of the breach in the journal, retraction of published articles, notification of employers, institutional authorities, funding agencies, and loss of privileges of publishing in the journal in the future.

Handling of Misconduct Allegations

The JTN editor recognizes the importance of making all reasonable efforts to maintain the integrity of the scholarly record and follow COPE recommendations when they suspect misconduct or receive credible allegations of a breach of journal policies. Any reports of potential misconduct submitted to the journal must include as much detailed information as possible to assist the editors in their investigation. If the confidentiality of manuscript or review records must be breached to investigate possible misconduct (such as in contacting the editor of another journal), the JTN editor will make every effort to notify the authors (or reviewers) beforehand. Individuals who are found to committed research misconduct are subject to editorial action, including but not limited to (1) disclosure of violations to employers, funding agencies, or other journal offices and (2) publication of a retraction, correction, editorial expression of concern, or editorial. The editors' efforts in preventing, detecting, and dealing with misconduct do not remove the authors' responsibility for the validity of their work and publications.

Retractions

JTN is prepared to issue retractions or corrections (according to the COPE guidelines on retractions)
when findings of misconduct are confirmed arising from investigations.