University of Michigan-Flint School of Nursing, Flint (Drs Keiser, Buterakos, Gillespie, Musil, and Herek); and Hurley Medical Center, Flint, Michigan (Dr Sachwani-Daswani).
Correspondence: Megan Keiser, DNP, RN, CNRN, SCRN, CHSE, ACNS-BC, NP-C, University of Michigan-Flint School of Nursing, 2180 William S. White Building, 303 E. Kearsley St., Flint, MI 48502 ([email protected]).
Dates: Submitted April 07, 2022; Revised September 27, 2022; Accepted September 27, 2022.
Dr Megan Keiser and Dr Roxanne Buterakos had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
The authors acknowledge the contributions and support of the following individuals from Hurley medical Center, Flint, Michigan: Kimberly Lipka, manager of the Neuro Trauma/Burn/Surgical ICU; Steve Robert Haake, trauma research assistant; and Jennifer LaChance, statistician.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.