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Epidemiology of Maxillofacial Trauma in a Prehospital Service in Brazil

Avansini Marsicano, Juliane PhD; Zanelato Cavalleri, Nathália DDS; Cordeiro, Denis Maurício DDS; Mori, Graziela Garrido PhD; Gurgel Calvet da Silveira, João Luiz PhD; Leal do Prado, Rosana PhD

doi: 10.1097/JTN.0000000000000470
RESEARCH
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Understanding facial trauma behaviors in different populations can help enhance effective prevention and efficient management of public resources in order to offer better treatment in large health systems. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of maxillofacial trauma treated by a public health emergency care service. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess maxillofacial trauma in patients treated by a public health service of emergency care at a midsize city in southern Brazil. Facial trauma records were retrieved directly from medical records from January 2010 to April 2014. The following variables were collected: patient age, sex, destination of patient after initial treatment, cause of trauma, and type of injury. Statistical analyses were performed using G tests with Williams' corrections (p < .05). The most frequent cause was road traffic collision (39.6%), followed by falls (33.6%) and interpersonal violence (22.0%). The prevalence of falls was higher in older adults. A statistically significant association was observed between age and causes (p < .05). After the initial care provided by the prehospital service, 44.1% of the patients were referred to secondary care centers and 40.1% to hospitals. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of facial trauma in Brazil, with a higher prevalence in young men. Falls were also a big concern for facial injuries, especially among older adults. Although most lesions could be classified as minor trauma, many patients are being treated at hospitals, which may increase the costs to the public health system.

Graduate Program in Dentistry (GPD, Master's Degree), University of Western Sao Paulo, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil (Drs Avansini Marsicano, Zanelato Cavalleri, Cordeiro, Mori, and Leal do Prado); and Graduate Program in Public Health, University of Blumenau, Blumenau, SC, Brazil (Dr Gurgel Calvet da Silveira).

Correspondence: Rosana Leal do Prado, PhD, Faculdade de Odontologia de Presidente Prudente, FOPP/UNOESTE, Rua José Bongiovani, 700, Cidade Universitária, 19050-920 Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil (rosanahb@yahoo.com.br).

Author Contribution: Juliane Avansini Marsicano and Rosana Leal do Prado conceived and designed the study. Nathália Zanelato Cavalleri and Denis Maurício Cordeiro collected the data. Rosana Leal do Prado, Nathália Zanelato Cavalleri, and Denis Maurício Cordeiro performed data analysis. Juliane Avansini Marsicano and Rosana Leal do Prado wrote the manuscript. Graziela Garrido Mori and João Luiz Gurgel Calvet da Silveira contributed to the interpretation of the results and provided a critical revision of the article. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Copyright © 2019 by the Society of Trauma Nurses.